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5 Types of Long-Arm Actions Understanding the different action types not only makes you a more educated shooter, but also a more responsible gun owner. by HEIDI LYN RAO

Sporting Clays Broken Open Shotgun

Firearm actions are one of the three basic parts of a firearm: action, stock and barrel. Actions of a firearm did not exist until the mid-to-late 1800s. Prior to the development of modern actions, firearms had locks. This is where the old phrase, “Lock, stock and barrel,” originated from.

Before you can understand the different types of actions, you need to know what an action does. The action of a firearm performs three functions; it loads, fires and ejects the cartridge or shotshell.

There are five common action types: bolt, lever, break, pump and semi-automatic. Firearms are often referred to according to the type of action they possess. Understanding the different action types not only makes you a more educated shooter but also a more responsible gun owner.

Bolt Action
The bolt-action rifle is the preferred action of most hunters and long-range shooters. Bolt actions are not exclusive to rifles. They can also be used in shotguns. Bolt-action shotguns can be used for goose and crane hunting and are usually found in 10- or 12-gauge. Bolt-action shotguns are also used in conjunction with rifled barrels for deer hunting.

Bolt-action rifles are usually identified by the presence of the bolt handle that extends from the breech area of the receiver. The bolt handle is attached to the actual bolt. The bolt of the firearm is the component that contains the firing pin. It also contains components such as extractors, which make it possible to cycle spent cartridges out of the firearm and load new ones.

The bolt is operated by rotating the bolt handle up and then pulling to the rear. This resets the firing pin. As the bolt is closed or pushed forward, it picks up a cartridge or shell from the magazine. When the bolt reaches its most forward travel position, the bolt is rotated down. There are locking lugs that secure the bolt in place for firing. These lugs prevent the bolt from blowing back, and force all the expanding gasses out of the muzzle.

Bolts are not exclusive to bolt-action rifles and shotguns. Bolts are also found in lever, pump and semi-automatic actions. Bolt handles in these firearms are referred to as charging handles.

Lever Action
Lever-action rifles have a special place in the history of the American West. These types of actions are still very popular among hunters. Lever-action rifles are also used in the Cowboy Action Shooting and Single Action Shooting Society (SASS). Henry Rifles manufactures a popular lever-action .410 shotgun.

Lever-action firearms are identified by a lever under the receiver. The lever is a solid piece and consists of two parts. The forward part of the lever is the trigger guard, and the larger rear part is a loop for the middle, ring and the pinky finger. On some lever action firearms, the finger loop of the lever can be very large. Chuck Connors made the large loop lever action rifle popular in his series, The Rifleman.

The lever action is operated by using three fingers to rotate the lever downward. The lever pivots just forward of the trigger at the guard, so that when it is rotated, the trigger is exposed. When the lever is opened, the bolt is moved to the rear and extends past the end of the receiver. Opening the lever resets the firing pin. When the lever reaches its most downward position, the spent cartridge or shell is extracted from the chamber and thrown clear of the breech. As the lever is closed, it picks up a new cartridge or shell from the magazine and feeds it into the chamber. The firearm cannot be fired until the lever is fully closed.

Break Action
Most break-action firearms are shotguns. Break-action shotguns can be single-barreled or double-barreled. Double-barreled shotguns are either over-and-unders or side-by-sides. There are also break-action rifles. Break-action rifles are either single-barreled or side-by-sides. There are even break-action firearms that are both rifles and shotguns. These are usually over-and-unders. Of these, one barrel is chambered for a shotgun shell and one barrel is chambered for a rifle cartridge.

Break-action firearms are also referred to as hinge-action firearms. Whatever you call it, the break-action firearm is operated by moving a lever or tang to one side. When the tang reaches its furthest travel, the lock is disengaged, and the barrels rotate downward by a hinge at the front of the receiver. Breaking the firearm open resets the firing pin. The cartridges or shells are loaded by manually inserting them into the receiver. After firing the cartridges or shells, the shooter can break open the firearm; the spent casings or hulls are either thrown clear of the chamber or manually removed.

Pump Action
Pump-action firearms are also commonly associated with shotguns. Like break-action firearms, rifles can also be pump actions. Pump .22s were very common in our grandparents’ day. Today you can find pump-action rifles in nearly all the common hunting calibers.

Pump-action firearms are operated by sliding or pumping the forend of the firearm’s two-piece stock to the rear. This forend is referred to as the slide. As the slide is moved rearward, it resets the firing pin while moving the bolt to the open position. When this movement is complete, the spent cartridge or shell is thrown clear of the breech. As the slide is pulled forward to the closed position, the bolt picks up a new cartridge or shell from the magazine. When the slide reaches its most forward position, the slide is locked in place.

The locking mechanism of the slide prevents the bolt from being thrown backwards when the cartridge or shell is discharged. The lock also prevents the expanding gasses from escaping out of the breech. This forces all the gasses to exit the firearm through the muzzle.

Semi-Automatic Action
Semi-automatic firearms can be found in rifles and shotguns. Modern sporting arms are very popular with today’s shooters. These include the modern AR platforms. Semi-automatic shotguns are also very popular with waterfowl hunters. These types of firearms are easy to learn and operate. They also allow for fast follow-up shots. The downside to semi-automatic firearms is that their operation can be adversely affected by the residue from previous shots. As a result, semi-automatic firearms need to be properly cleaned after each use.

Semi-automatic firearms are operated by pulling the trigger. When the cartridge or shell is discharged, the recoil, gasses (or a combination of both) work the action. This means the bolt of the firearm is thrown rearward, and then slams forward to the closed position in one fluid motion. There are several things that happen in this fast operation. As the bolt travels rearwards, the firing pin is reset and the spent cartridge or shell is thrown clear of the breech. As the bolt travels forward, it picks up a new cartridge or shell from the magazine and feeds it into the chamber.

A semi-automatic firearm discharges one round for every pull of the trigger. As a result, a semi-automatic firearm can be fired as fast as the trigger can be pulled. This is not to be confused with a fully automatic firearm, which will continue firing until the shooter lets off the trigger, or the firearm runs out of ammunition. As responsible shooters we must use the correct terminology when referring to our firearms.

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All About Guns Gun Info for Rookies

5 Firearm Finishes: What’s the Difference? ​Those superficial surfaces aren’t so superficial after all … here’s why.” by B. GIL HORMAN

Finishes Auto Ordnance

Simply stated, steel is better suited to the explosive nature of shooting than other metal or material. For this reason, rifles of every type are built using steel components including the barrels, receivers and internal parts. However, steel is comprised mostly of iron, and iron is susceptible to rust. That’s why the primary purpose of all rifle finish types, or surface treatments, is to inhibit or prevent environmental oxygen and water from causing gun metal corrosion.

Today there are literally dozens of rifle finish options to choose from ranging from 19th century technology to cutting edge composites. Some are more interesting to look at while others have added physical benefits such as improved scratch resistance or increased heat tolerance. Here is a quick look at five of the popular rifle finishes you’re likely to see on display at your local sporting goods store.

Black Oxide (Bluing)
Strangely enough, the popular black oxide rifle finish we all know and love, commonly called Bluing because if its blue-black color, is a close cousin of the red iron oxide we call rust. Giving gun metal a blued finish is a controlled electrochemical conversion process, or oxidizing chemical reaction, with the iron in the surface of the steel. The resulting thin layer of oxide on top of the steel increases the metal’s corrosion resistance. This type of finish can be applied in various ways for different cosmetic results. Methods include Hot Bluing, Cold Bluing, Rust Bluing, Fume bluing, Niter bluing and Browning which leaves the surface with a plumy brown finish.

The much loved blued finish can have a non-reflective matte appearance or it can be polished to an eye catching shine.

Bluing is one of the oldest and most widely accepted rifle finishes in use today. For some folks, blued steel and hardwood stocks are the only way to go! A blued gun can have a non-reflective matte appearance or it can be polished to a fine shine. When properly cared for, a blued finish will easily last the lifetime of the rifle. But it’s not nearly as tough or corrosion resistant as other rife finishes. It’s relatively easy to scratch and offers minimal protection from rust unless it’s kept dry and coated with moisture displacing oil. If you have some blued guns in storage, make sure to look them over at least a couple of times a year, especially if you live in a part of the country with higher humidity.

Parkerizing (Phosphate Finish)
Parkerizing, also known as phosphating or bonderizing, is a gun metal treatment that provides a tougher finish than bluing with an increased resistance to corrosion, nicks and scratches. The development of the phosphating process began in the 19th century in England. It was further developed by the Parker family in the United States (which is where the term Parkerized comes from). The process was adopted for the mass production of firearms by the U.S. military during World War II and it has been in use ever since.

Vintage combat rifles like the Remington M1903 and M1903A3 often have distinctive matte black or gray Parkerized finishes.

This finish is applied by dunking steel gun parts into a heated bath of phosphoric acid solution. Simmer for between 5 to 45 minutes and the components are ready to serve. Key ingredients in the solution include zinc or manganese along with various nitrates, chlorates, and copper. The resulting matte finish can have a color range from a medium gray to dark black depending on the chemical solution used. It’s a durable finish which benefits from a good coating of oil for smooth operation.

Metal Plating
Plating is a centuries old process of depositing a thin layer of one kind of metal on top of another. It’s a process that’s widely used in the appliance, electronics and automotive industries as well as gun manufacturing. The goal is a best-of-both-worlds result with the thin top layer, or plate, providing cosmetically desirable or corrosion resistance properties to the steel underneath. Plating can be applied to gun parts in various ways including processes that call for an electrical charge (electroplating) along with chemical or auto-catalytic processes that don’t require electricity (electroless plating).

The receiver of this Henry American Beauty .22 rifle features a polished nickel finish applied over the fine line engraving.

The quality of the plating can vary depending on the preparation of the gun parts, the solutions used, and the skill of the smith applying it. The level of scratch resistance and appearance all comes down to the type of plating metal used. Nickel plated guns have been around for quite some time because nickel is corrosion resistant and it can be polished to a bright shine. Hard chrome is one of the toughest plate choices available and is commonly used to extend the working life of high velocity rifle bores.

For those who want to give their guns an artistic twist, silver and gold plating is the way to go. They offer high corrosion resistance but because they are soft metals they are best reserved for display pieces only. If you want a glittery gun you can also shoot, then take a look at a Titanium nitride finish. When polished, a Titanium-type finish provides the luster of polished gold, silver or bronze with a level of toughness similar to hard chrome.

Stainless Steel
Technically speaking, stainless steel is not a gun finish. Most finishes are comprised of a layer of material applied to the outer surfaces of carbon steel gun parts. Instead, this is a type of steel with corrosion resistance built right into it. Developed in the early 1900s, stainless steels are steel alloys which contain relativity high amounts of a mineral called chromium (at least 10.5 percent by mass) that is added for its anti-corrosive properties. Stainless steel can also be polished to a mirror shine.

The stainless steel alloys used in rifles like this Ruger 77/357 contain a high percentage of rust resistant chromium.

In most cases, a stainless-steel rifle is going to cost more than the same model with a blued finish. But it’s worth the investment for guns used regularly in harsh weather conditions. Although stainless steel is a low maintenance option, it’s not a no maintenance metal. It still needs to be kept dry, clean and properly oiled. It used to be that stainless steel had an easily recognized silver appearance. But today you need to check the label because various modern coatings can be applied to stainless steel to give it a matte black look that matches polymer stocks.

Cerakote (Ceramic Coatings)
Cerakote is the brand name for a popular coating that has taken the industry by storm over the last few years. It’s composed of a polymer-ceramic compound that can be air brushed onto gun parts that are then placed into an industrial kiln for a few hours to cure the coating. The result is a smooth, matte or gloss finish that is available in a wide variety of colors including black, gray, green, red, pink, blue and yellow, to name a few.

Cerakote, and other ceramic coatings, are available in a wide variety of bright or conservative colors like the Flat Dark Earth finish of this Brownells exclusive Howa 1500 barreled action.

Cerakote and similar ceramic coatings have several desirable physical qualities that make them ideal for firearms. The provide a hard, durable finish which is resistant to wear, corrosion, chemicals and impact damage. They improve lubricity, which means there’s less friction between moving parts. But what gives this finish a real edge in the market place is that its applications are not limited to steel. Cerakote can be applied to a variety of materials, including wood, polymer and aluminum. This allows an entire rifle to be treated which comes in handy for matching component colors or treating the gun to a uniform camouflage pattern.

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Gun Violence and the Wild West by Miguel A. Faria, MD

There is actually a real misconception of the Old West that truly needs correcting. That is the notion of an uncivilized Wild West, where antisocial and violent behavior was the norm, and where citizens were afraid to leave their homes, afraid of rampant crime and in fear for their lives.

This savage perspective turns out to be incorrect—false assumptions of the Old West based on sensationalist press, the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show of the 1880s and ‘90s, and subsequently cowboy shows and Hollywood movies. Bands of working cowboys and good citizens did not go about town in their leisure time challenging, outdrawing, and shooting each other in a systematized orgy of violence and gunfights as portrayed in the movies.

Bad men and violent outlaws did kill each other, but almost always left the good people of the towns alone. The famous gunfight at the O.K. Corral in 1881 in Tombstone, Arizona, in which Wyatt Earp, and his brothers, Virgil and Morgan, with Doc Holliday, killed three of the outlaw “Cowboys,” became a celebrated incident not only because of the unique circumstances but also because brother lawmen killed brother outlaws in a historic shootout. Even then it was newsworthy and certainly not a daily occurrence.

Gunfighters, Highwaymen and Vigilantes: Violence on the Frontier by historian Roger D. McGrath

In his book, Gunfighters, Highwaymen and Vigilantes: Violence on the Frontier, historian Roger D. McGrath has corrected the historic record with substantive scholarship. After studying the Sierra Nevada frontier towns of Aurora and Bodie, McGrath found that those mining towns, where audacious young men and gunmen roamed freely packing either Colt Navy .36 six shot pistols in Aurora or Colt double action “lightning” or “peacekeeper” revolvers in Bodie, were peaceful towns, except for the quarrels in the carousing and gambling saloons. Otherwise, both towns carried on well, and everyone not interested in whoring, drinking, and gun fighting were left alone.

True, the homicide rate was high among those carousing and looking for fights in the saloons, but in the rest of the populace, the old, the ladies, and those not willing to pick fights, homicides were rare. Likewise, robbery, burglary, and rape were rare. Murder was confined to the “drunkards upholding their honor.” The homicide rate for Aurora and Bodie were 64 and 116 per 100,000, respectively, compared to Washington, D.C., at 72 per year in the 1990s. Likewise, the burglary and robbery rates were 6 and 84 per 100,000, respectively, for Bodie; compared to 2,661 and 1,140, respectively, for New York City in 1980.

The townspeople, although they might have carried guns, respected each other, and townspeople did not even bother to lock their doors at night. Similar observations have been made by other researchers studying the supposedly violent and crime-ridden Lincoln County, New Mexico; the Kansas towns of Dodge City and Wichita in the 1870s; and the Texas frontier towns from 1875 to 1890.

Returning to the issue of the possible confiscation of American firearms in the current era, consider the practical obstacles, not to mention the constitutional protection. Trying to blame, register, ban, and confiscate (one step usually follows the other) over 300 million firearms owned by Americans would bring about a tinder box situation, at least an order of magnitude worse than Prohibition, for Americans obey just and moral laws but not capricious or tyrannical laws, and a veritable police state would be required to enforce the draconian gun laws that would be necessary to carry that out.

Thus, politicians who sadly continue to use the latest tragedy (and the emotionalism and the passions elicited in its wake) to push for the usual round of gun control—while ignoring the accumulated objective research published in the social sciences and the criminologic literature—are not sincerely lamenting the deaths of the innocent or sympathizing with their families, but attempting to score political points, political points at the expense of the victims or good citizens.

They are also further polarizing America and tearing apart the fabric of this great nation by using emotionalism rather than common sense to bolster their unwise, political actions. Let’s stop demonizing guns and end the shootings by incarcerating the criminals and identifying and healing the mentally ill, for much work needs to be done in the psychiatric and mental health arenas and in the task of reducing violence. Sensationalization of violence day after day by the press, the electronic media and the internet—heaped upon impressionable individuals subject to our increasingly dumbed down, popular culture and public education—is having a malevolent effect that needs to stop.

Written by Dr. Miguel Faria

Miguel A. Faria, Jr, MD is a retired professor of Neurosurgery and  Medical History at Mercer University School of Medicine. He founded Hacienda Publishing and is Associate Editor in Chief in Neuropsychiatry and World Affairs of Surgical Neurology International. He served on the CDC’s Injury Research Grant Review Committee. This article is excerpted, updated, and edited from his book, America, Guns, and Freedom: A Journey Into Politics and the Public Health & Gun Control Movements (2019).

This article may be cited as: Faria MA. Gun Violence and the Wild, February 28, 2022. Available from:

Copyright ©2022 Miguel A. Faria, Jr., M.D

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Retired NYPD cop living in Ireland triggers massive raid over his old gun By  John Aidan Byrne (What a Dumbshit!!!!!)

The daring morning police raid was the largest in recent memory in the tiny village of Swanlinbar, County Cavan, population 200, when up to 10 armed officers in six vehicles descended on the picture-postcard hamlet.

“I said to them, I wish it was f–king loaded because I would have blown every f–king one of you away,” Jude McGovern recalled to The Post. The firing pin was removed from the gun a long time ago, and it is no longer functional.

“Can you imagine?” the outraged octogenarian said. “About 10 of them forced in my front door around 9:30 in the morning when I was out of the house, and then I come back and find four of them going through my furniture looking for my gun.”

Jude McGovern, a retired NYPD cop living in Ireland, had his home raided because he kept a decommissioned revolver at his residence.
John McVitty
Ten police officers descended on Jude McGovern’s home in search of his gun.
John McVitty

The April 9 seizure came after a local judge signed a warrant citing “unlawful possession of a firearm in suspicious circumstances” in the Main Street apartment where McGovern lives with his two Jack Russell terriers.

The feisty Irishman, who grew up in Swanlinbar, speculates that law enforcement learned about his relic of a firearm from social media, after a visitor to McGovern’s home a few years ago snapped a playful picture of the gun and posted it on Facebook.

Ireland’s police force, known as An GardaSíochána (Irish for “Guardians of the Peace”), told The Post it does not comment on named individuals, but did confirm it executed a search warrant.

McGovern once worked as a correction officer at Rikers Island.
John McVitty

“A suspected unlicensed firearm was seized and sent to the Ballistics Unit for analysis,” the statement said.

The former lawman — McGovern also served as a correction officer at Rikers Island — said Irish cops told him they would return his gun “when it was justified by a gunsmith that it is inoperable.”

McGovern insists he was cleared to purchase the firearm for personal protection when off duty during his law enforcement days in New York. He bought the Smith and Wesson five-shot revolver in Lower Manhattan in 1968. McGovern would carry it in a holster on his leg. Before he returned to the old sod in 1996, McGovern said he had the firearm decommissioned in New Jersey for $175.

McGovern search warrant
Irish police confirmed they executed a search warrant but could not name an individual.
John McVitty

Although McGovern never declared the gun on his return to Ireland, he did declare it and completed the paperwork at Newark Airport before his 1996 departure for Ireland.

He said the piece holds “sentimental value” to him.

McGovern says the dramatic dragnet shattered his nerves, and he’s had to take pills to calm down.

gun receipt
McGovern said he never declared the gun in Ireland but did declare it in Newark in 1996 before leaving the US for Ireland.
John McVitty

McGovern immigrated to the US in 1957, joining the same US Army division based in Fort Hood as Elvis Presley, although he never met the King. He said his military career took him to Germany and Greenland.

In 1965, McGovern and a partner, FDNY firefighter Jack Farley, opened The Moonshiner on 94th Street and Roosevelt Avenue near Shea Stadium, a pub popular with Mets players.

In 1968, McGovern joined the NYPD, and later switched to Corrections.

McGovern joined the NYPD in 1968 after a stint with the US Army.
John McVitty

McGovern is now the talk of Swanlinbar, a village about 100 miles northwest of Dublin. But he says he’s no criminal.

“No common sense prevailed in this incident,” McGovern told The Post. “I enjoy my few rum and cokes at night but I didn’t drink during Lent. I am not interested in doing anything notorious at 88 years of age.”

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How to make the most of a guided hunt by John McAdams

How to make the most of a guided hunt
Hunting with an outfitter or guide can be a great way to have the hunt of a lifetime. However, paying a guide or an outfitter does not guarantee success on a hunt. There are a few things you as the client should do that will both make your guide’s life easier and increase your odds of success.
Read on to learn how to make the most out of a guided hunt.

Arrive in good shape

While some hunts are more physically demanding than others, physical fitness is still an essential part of how to be a good client on a guided hunt. Being able to actively partake on the hunt without undue difficulty will make it much easier on your guide. It will also make the hunt much more fun for you, since you’ll be able to enjoy the experience without gasping for air or being on the verge or collapsing from exhaustion.
You need to arrive in shape on Day 1. The hunt is not the time to get in shape. Talk to your outfitter prior to the hunt and find out what sort of fitness level is best for the hunt. Some outfitters, especially those guiding extremely physically demanding hunts, will be happy to provide you a workout plan to properly prepare you.
Regardless, show up in good physical condition and ready to go. You and your guide will both appreciate it on the hunt.

Be familiar with your weapon of choice

There are few things that will drive a hunting guide crazy faster than a hunter who shows up and can’t shoot. On a deer, elk or plains game hunt, that is a frustrating experience that can result in a missed shot or a wounded animal. On a dangerous game hunt, poor marksmanship can get someone killed. For this reason, many professional hunters rate marksmanship as the most important characteristic of a good client.
Prior to your hunt, get in touch with your outfitter and find out the most common shooting distances you’ll encounter on your hunt. Then, do a little research (or just ask your outfitter again), and pick out the best rifle and ammunition (or archery equipment) and properly zero them in accordance with the ranges that you are most likely to shoot at on your hunt.
Once that is complete, you need to practice. Get off the bench and practice shooting from field shooting positions. Then practice rapid follow-up shots. Then practice rapid reloads.
Remember, you are going to spend potentially thousands of dollars on a guided hunt, and it all comes down to you properly delivering a bullet or an arrow when the time comes. A little bit of time and money spent at the range is a good investment for the actual hunt and will likely pay large dividends down the road.

Tip well

Regardless of what you might think at first — especially considering how much some guided hunts cost — hunting guides are not wealthy individuals. Don’t get me wrong, there are some that do pretty well, but most don’t make much money. This is especially true when you consider the hours they have to put in, along with the fact that their work is primarily seasonal. Because of this, tips are important to hunting guides.
That being said, you should realize gratuity is always optional. Additionally, you should also base your tip on the quality of service you received on the hunt, not necessarily the end result of the hunt.
If your guide worked his or her tail off and really went above and beyond the call of duty on the hunt, yet you went home empty-handed or with a smaller-than-desired trophy, that guide should still receive a good tip. By the same token, a guide who provided poor service, had a bad attitude, showed little initiative, etc., should receive little or no gratuity.
The exact amount to tip your hunting guide is always a tricky subject. Some outfitters will provide you with a recommended amount to tip. However, in the absence of this, I recommend that you tip your guide 5-10 percent of the total hunt cost, depending on the level of service that you received. Additionally, don’t forget to tip any other camp staff who may also have been essential parts of the hunt, like a cook, skinner, packer, etc.

Have a good attitude

Perhaps the most important aspect of how to be a good client on a guided hunt is to have a good attitude. Things occasionally go wrong on hunts, even when you are using the best guide or outfitter.
Sometimes the weather is bad. Sometimes the animals just won’t seem to cooperate. Sometimes the craziest little thing that you wouldn’t think can possibly go wrong goes wrong.
When that happens, you’ve just got to roll with the punches. Good guides and outfitters will work hard to make sure you have a successful hunt, but that doesn’t mean they can work miracles. When things don’t go according to plan (and they often don’t), you’ve got to make sure that you still maintain a positive attitude.
Remember, you’re on a hunting trip because it is a fun activity and you enjoy it. Even a bad day hunting is better than a good day at the office, so make the most of it.
Having a good attitude not only makes you more fun to be around, but it is also infectious. Additionally, a nice person with a good attitude is the type of person that most guides and camp staff will go the extra mile for to make sure they have a special hunt.
It’s easy to forget that it is not as simple as just paying a lot of money to a guide or an outfitter in order to have a good hunt. You, as the hunter, have certain expectations you need to live up to in order to give yourself the best odds of success.
Following the advice presented in this article will go a long way toward setting you up for success. However, nothing in life is guaranteed, which is why having a good attitude is so important. As long as you’ve got a good attitude, you will have few bad hunts, regardless of what you end up shooting.
Were there any important tips on how to make the most out of a guided hunt that I missed?

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Top 5 Hilariously Bad Carry Guns | TFBTV

All About Guns Gun Info for Rookies

Winchester Model 12 slam firing, Hint – Don’t do this at most ranges or when the Cops are around