That is one fine looking combat pistol if I ever seen one before!
Winchester Model 70
|Winchester Model 70|
Winchester Model 70 with rifle scope and 24-inch barrel. One-piece scope mount.
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||United States Marine Corps|
|Manufacturer||Winchester Repeating Arms Company, U.S. Repeating Arms, Fabrique Nationale de Herstal|
|Barrel length||22, 24 or 26 inch|
|Cartridge||various, see article|
|Feed system||internal spring fed well with floorplate
The Winchester Model 70 is a bolt-action sporting rifle. It has an iconic place in American sporting culture and has been held in high regard by shooters since it was introduced in 1936, earning the moniker “The Rifleman’s Rifle”. The action has some design similarities to Mauser designs and it is a development of the earlier Winchester Model 54.
The Model 70 was originally manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company between 1936 and 1980. From the early 1980s until 2006, Winchester rifles were manufactured by U.S. Repeating Arms under an agreement with Olin Corporation, allowing USRA to use the Winchester name and logo. Model 70s were built in New Haven, Connecticut, from 1936 to 2006, when production ceased. In the fall of 2007, the Belgian company FN Herstal announced that Model 70 production would resume. As of 2012, new Winchester Model 70 rifles were being made by FN Herstal in Columbia, South Carolina. In 2013, assembly was moved to Portugal.
- 1The Model 70
- 21936 through 1963 Model 70
- 31964 through 1992 Model 70
- 41968 Model 70
- 51992 to 2006 Model 70
- 62006–present Model 70
- 7Law enforcement use
- 8Military use
- 10See also
- 12External links
The Model 70
In 1936, Winchester introduced the Model 70 bolt-action rifle to the American market. The Model 70 was largely based on the Model 54, and is today still highly regarded by shooters and is often called “The Rifleman’s Rifle”. In 1999 Shooting Times magazine named the Model 70 the “Bolt-action Rifle of the Century”.
Throughout its life, the Model 70 has been offered in many grades and styles. Over the entire production of the Model 70, chamberings have included: .22 Hornet, .222 Remington, .223 Remington, .22-250 Remington, .223 WSSM, .225 Winchester, .220 Swift, .243 Winchester, .243 WSSM, .250-3000 Savage, .257 Roberts, .25-06 Remington, .25 WSSM, 6.5×55mm, .264 Winchester Magnum, .270 Winchester, .270 WSM, .270 Weatherby Magnum, .280 Remington, 7mm Mauser, 7mm-08, 7 mm Remington Magnum, 7mm WSM, 7mm STW
, .300 Savage, .30-06 Springfield, .308 Winchester, .300 H&H Magnum, .300 Winchester Magnum, .300 WSM, .300 Weatherby Magnum, .300 RUM, .325 WSM, .338 Winchester Magnum, .35 Remington, .358 Winchester, .375 H&H Magnum, .416 Remington Magnum, .416 Rigby, .458 Winchester Magnum, and .470 Capstick.
1936 through 1963 Model 70
The pre-1964 Model 70s were manufactured from 1936 through 1963 after which time significant changes in the design and manufacture of the rifles were made. Pre-1964 Model 70s bring a substantial price premium due to a public perception that they were better, as they had several desirable features (Mauser-type controlled round feed, cut checkering) that the post-1964 version did not. The best way to identify a pre-1964 Model 70 Winchester rifles is the serial number and the fore-end screw to secure the barrel to the stock. Model 70 rifles with serial numbers below 700,000are the pre-1964 variety. The receivers of these Model 70s were machined from bar stock steel.
Pre-1964 Model 70 action (controlled round feed)
The original Model 70 quickly established an excellent reputation with American sportsmen. It was a high-quality action of considerable strength, with 2 forward locking lugs and a Mauser-type non-rotating claw extractor. The key benefit of the Mauser-type extractor compared to later versions is that it captures the rim of a cartridge as it is fed upwards from the magazine and controls its journey forward into the rifle’s chamber. This feed is called “controlled round feeding” (CRF) and is favored by a number of shooters who prefer rifles to feed reliably, especially those who pursue dangerous game. The ejector was of the blade type similar to that of the Mauser 98, but considered superior as it did not require a Mauser-type slot through the left locking lug; instead there was a slot in the bolt face below the locking lug, leaving both forward lugs solid and hence stronger. The main benefit of the blade type ejector is it is simpler and perhaps more reliable (being considered less susceptible to ingress of foreign matter) when compared to the later post-1964 plunger ejector in the bolt face controlled by a coil spring.
Other significant features of this action include a three-position wing-type safety (retained throughout Model 70 production), a cone breeching-system that helps prevent bullet-nose damage while loading a cartridge from the magazine, machined steel trigger-guard and floor plate, one-piece bolt construction, and a trigger adjustable for pull weight and over-travel.
1964 through 1992 Model 70
Competing as it did with the Remington Model 700, it was decided that changes needed to be made in the face of rising labour costs. Accordingly, in 1964 Winchester made a number of design changes to the Model 70. Few to none of these changes were popular with the rifle-buying public, or with the US military. The changes included dropping the controlled round feed feature, a change to the basic stock shape and the use of impressed checkering rather than cut checkering.
Jack O’Connor, long a proponent of the Model 70, wrote of the post-1964 version that “I was informed by Winchester brass that the Model 70 was being redesigned. I told them that I was glad to get the information so I could lay in four or five more before they loused the rifle up. Then I saw the pilot model of ‘New Model 70.’ At the first glimpse I like to fell into a swoon. The action was simplified, the trigger guard and floor plate made of a flimsy looking one-piece stamping.” Despite this initial reaction, O’Connor grudgingly went on to say, “Actually the post-1964 Model 70 is not a bad rifle in spite of the fact that rifle aficionados have never taken it to their bosoms the way they did its predecessor. It is a stronger action than the pre-1964. The head of the bolt encloses the head of the case. It has a small, neat hook extractor, which is adequate. With this extractor the cartridge is not as surely controlled as it is with the Mauser-type extractor. However, the new model seldom gives feeding problems.”
Post-1964 Model 70 action (push feed)
In order to reduce manufacturing costs in the face of higher labour rates, rifles manufactured from 1964 to 1992 differed from early Model 70s in the following ways:
- The receiver, for the first time, and from here on out, was forged into shape, then machined. Heat treatment of the receiver was localized to the areas where necessary, namely the cams and locking lugs, to prevent warping caused by overall heat treatment. Forging the receiver increased its strength and reduced the machining labor and time needed to achieve the final shape.
- The bolt was changed significantly. The bolt face was enclosed so that it fully surrounded the cartridge rim, in a similar way to the Remington 700 bolt. While cheaper to manufacture than the undercut bolt face needed for controlled feed actions, it is also stronger, providing more support to the cartridge case head, and better contains escaping gases in the event of a case rupture. The new bolt also differed from the old in that it was manufactured in 2 pieces (bolt-handle/collar and the bolt body) and then brazed together.
- The Mauser-inspired, non-rotating claw extractor (incompatible with a fully enclosed bolt head) was eliminated, and replaced with a small wedge-shaped extractor located within a lug of the bolt head. This type of extractor does not engage the cartridge rim as it rises from the magazine into the action, but rather clips over the cartridge rim after the cartridge has been pushed into the chamber and the bolt handle is turned down. This system is more vulnerable than the old system to jamming or being inadvertently closed on an empty breech (i.e., failing to load a new round) if operated under duress, especially if the rifle is held upside-down or on its side. In addition, the old extractor design served to stabilize the bolt while the action was open; without it, the new bolt did not have any such stabilization, and wobbled while fully open. This has since been fixed in later rifles, but it was nevertheless an obvious departure and certainly less elegant in function than the earlier models, which allowed the rifle to chamber cartidges smoothly from any position.
- Barrels were now rifled by hammer forging, rather than the more costly process of being cut by hand.
- The machined steel trigger guard and floor plate were replaced with parts stamped from an aluminium alloy to reduce weight using the assembly from the pre-1964 Featherweight version.
- Some earlier models featured walnut stocks with checkering that was impressed onto the wood rather than cut into it as on the early Model 70s, further reducing manufacturing costs at the expense of a less positive grip on the rifle, particularly if the shooter is wearing gloves.
Any Model 70 rifle made since that is not designated as a “Classic” model is likely to have this post-1964 action. In design terms (enclosed bolt face, plunger ejector, brazed bolt construction) the new action itself was comparable in design to the competing Remington Model 700, which has a worldwide following and is considered to be very reliable. When coupled with the other cost-cutting changes and compared with the previously produced and very familiar Model 70, however, it was immediately declared to be lacking. The new design of the rifle was swiftly and severely criticized by both gun writers and riflemen alike for its perceived lesser amount of control and feed issues, making the original action much more prized.
That said, it should be noted that the post-1964 action has been further improved over the years. Thanks to a refined bolt head design, the bolt is now less wobbly when open, and the action is now generally considered on par with the CRF action. Under normal conditions, the action’s new design is no less reliable, and although the simplified construction is certainly less elegant, some of the changes could be considered improvements, having made the action stronger. Also, the pressed checkering, one of the most reviled changes, was likewise done away with as soon as machine-cut checkering became available. All things considered, in normal situations there is now not much to choose between the two versions at present, apart from personal preference.
1968 Model 70
In 1968 further revisions were made to the Model 70 in part to address consumer concerns. An “anti-bind” feature was introduced to make operation of the action smoother, which comprised a groove in an extended right locking lug operating on a rib on the right side of the receiver. This made the action noticeably smoother to operate and has been retained to the present day. A steel floorplate and stainless magazine follower were introduced, partially revoking changes introduced in the 1964 model. The alloy trigger guard was retained.
1992 to 2006 Model 70
Starting in 1992, Winchester re-introduced many features of the pre-1964 rifles, while also continuing to manufacture less-expensive variants. The post-1992 Model 70 is an extensive rifle line that boasts nearly all of the features of the original line, but with some updated equipment, such as the Controlled Round Push Feed action and synthetic stocks. The popular Shadow variants feature black resin stocks, which reduce the price of the firearm significantly, and hold up better than wood stocks over time. Some of the modern rifles also use high performance McMillan or Bell and Carlson fiberglass stocks, though these rifles tend to be expensive. Particular models feature a one-piece aluminum pillar block bedding for greater accuracy, and some models have fluting of the barrel to reduce weight and vent the barrel for additional cooling. Carbon fiber barrels are also found on select models to reduce weight and dissipate heat faster. Walnut stocks are still found across the line in satin finishes, and laminated walnut stocks are added to the mix for structural stability in extreme dry or wet conditions. The Model 70 is offered in all of the previous chamberings as the original, and is now supplemented with newer rounds, including the Winchester Short Magnum (WSM) and Winchester Super Short Magnum (WSSM) cartridges, which are magnum loaded rounds, but are shorter in length and wider in diameter, so spent cartridges take less time to eject and use less powder. However, these short magnum cartridges reduce magazine capacity and feeding reliability, due to their extra width and rebated rim.
Model 70 Classic
In 1992, Winchester began producing a controlled round feed Model 70 that was marketed as the “Classic” model. This version reintroduced the CRF feature, while retaining the “anti-bind” locking lug groove bolt guide of the 1968 push feed model. The use of modern CNC manufacturing techniques allowed Winchester to re-introduce the CRF feature at a competitive price.
Around this time, Browning, which is owned by the same parent company as USRAC, Giat Corp, of France, introduced the BOSS accuracy system. The term ‘BOSS’ is an acronym for Ballistic Optimising Shooting System. The device attaches to the muzzle end of the barrel and allows the natural harmonics, commonly known as barrel whip, caused during the bullet’s passage down the bore, to be refined and controlled. By adjusting the device for optimum performance in the individual rifle, accuracy is brought to peak level. Winchester Model 70s equipped with the BOSS provide a significant improvement in accuracy for a production rifle. Currently, only Browning rifles are available with the BOSS.
Later, Winchester expanded the Classic line, putting the Classic action on all their modern stocks, giving a wide range of choice in rifle types. This basically lets the buyer choose an action, then choose a stock to one’s liking. Both pre- and post-1964 versions of the Model 70 actions have their strengths and weaknesses.
1992 Classic Model (Controlled Round Feed and Controlled Round Push Feed)
At the same time as the CRF feature was re-introduced, a recent innovation allowed the short extractor used on the post-1964 models to ride over the extraction groove on a cartridge, giving controlled feeding without the expense of the long Mauser type extractor. This was called Controlled Round Push Feed. This is achieved by the use of the pre-1964 extractor, combined with the post-1964 bolt face relieved at the bottom allowing the round to engage the bolt face from underneath.
2006–present Model 70
On March 31, 2006, U.S. Repeating Arms closed the New Haven, Conn. plant where Winchester rifles and shotguns were produced for 140 years. This resulted in hiatus of the production of the Winchester Model 70 rifle and Winchester Model 1300 pump-action shotgun and the end of the Model 94 lever-action rifle. Other Winchester models however, are still produced in other regions such as Asia and Europe.
On August 15, 2006, Olin Corporation, owner of the Winchester trademarks, announced that it had entered into a new license agreement with Browning to make Winchester brand rifles and shotguns, though not at the closed Winchester plant in New Haven. Browning, based in Morgan, Utah, and the former licensee, U.S. Repeating Arms Company, are both subsidiaries of FN Herstal.
In October 2007, FN Herstal announced that it would produce Controlled Round Feed Winchester Model 70 rifles at its facility in Columbia, South Carolina, where it currently manufactures the M240, M249, and M16 for the United States military, as well as its SPR and PBR lines, which are, in fact, variants of the modern Model 70 Controlled Round Feed rifles.
In 2013, FN/Browning relocated Model 70 assembly to Portugal.
As of 2015 Model 70 rifles are stamped, “Imported by BACO, Inc., Morgan, Utah – Made in Portugal by Browning Viana”.
Law enforcement use
The Winchester Model 70 series rifles are marketed as sniper rifles for military forces and law enforcement agencies under the Fabrique Nationale banner as the Special Police Rifle (SPR) and the Patrol Bolt Rifle (PBR).
The FN Special Police Rifle has the standard Winchester Model 70 rifle action, receiver and magazine system but the rifle is fitted with a heavier barrel and with the McMillan series tactical rifle stocks.
The FN Patrol Bolt Rifle has the standard features of the original Winchester Model 70 rifle but the rifle is designed for use by police officers in patrol cars with the rifle having a short and compact barrel so it would allow the rifle to be stored in a police car. The FN Patrol Bolt Rifle is also marketed with a compensator on the muzzle of the rifle’s barrel.
The United States Marine Corps purchased 373 Model 70 rifles in May, 1942. Although the Marine Corps officially used only the M1 Garand and the M1903 Springfield as sniper rifles during the Second World War, “many Winchester Model 70s showed up at training camps and in actual field use during the Pacific campaign.” These rifles had 24-inch sporter barrels chambered for .30-06 Springfield. They were serial numbered in the 41000 to 50000 range and were fitted with leaf sights and checkered stocks with steel butt plates, one-inch sling swivels, and leather slings. It has been reported that some of these rifles were equipped with 8X Unertl telescopic sights for limited unofficial use as sniper weapons on Guadalcanal and during the Korean War. Many of the surviving rifles, after reconditioning with heavier Douglas barrels and new stocks between 1956 and 1963 at the Marine Corps match rebuild shop in Albany, Georgia, were fitted with 8× Unertlsights from M1903A1 sniper rifles. The reconditioned rifles were used in competitive shooting matches; and the United States Army purchased approximately 200 new Model 70 National Match Rifles with medium heavy barrels for match use between 1954 and 1957. Many of the reconditioned Marine Corps match rifles were used by Marine Corps snipers during the early years of the Vietnam war with M72 match ammunition loaded with 173-grain boat-tailed bullets. A smaller number of the Army’s Model 70 rifles also saw combat use by Army snipers; and some were equipped with silencers for covert operations in Southeast Asia. These Model 70 rifles never achieved the status of a standard military weapon; but were used until replaced by the Remington Model 700 series bolt-action rifles which became the basis for the M40 series sniper rifle.
One of the reasons the U.S. Marine Corps replaced their Winchester Model 70s was that the post-1964 variants of the Model 70 did not meet U.S. Marines’ standards. Despite the introduction of the Remington Model 700 rifle, the pre-1964 Winchester Model 70 was still used by the US Marine Corps’ scout/sniper teams during the Vietnam Waralongside the Remington Model 700 rifle. The original wood stocks were found to be warping in both rifles after a few years of service and both rifles were given fiberglass stocks to remedy the problem. Existing Model 70s still in service have had their stocks replaced with a McMillan fiberglass stock, such as that found on the Custom Extreme Weather variant.
One of the best known U.S. Marine Corps snipers who used the Winchester Model 70 during the Vietnam War was Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Hathcock, who used a Winchester Model 70 sniper rifle chambered in .30-06. It was this rifle, equipped with a standard 8×43 Unertl scope, that Hathcock used to kill a North Vietnamese enemy sniper by shooting him in the eye, through the scope of his Mosin–Nagant rifle. Hathcock’s rifle is on display at the Quantico, Virginia Marine Corps Sniper Museum.
Now I have not made up my mind on whether I go here first or to Holland & Holland in London. But make no mistake that I will go to both of them come Hell or High Water!
Here are some reasons why!
Need I say more? Also you might want to look & see who some of their clients are. All I can say if it’s good enough for them …….
John Rigby & Company
|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (August 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Founded||1775 Dublin, Ireland|
|Owner||Lüke & Ortmeier Gruppe|
John Rigby & Company (or John Rigby & Co. (Gunmakers) Ltd) is a gunmaking firm founded by John Rigby in 1775 in Dublin. The company was established by the first John Rigby in Dublin, Ireland, apparently in 1775; his grandson, also John, opened a London branch in 1865; and Dublin operations had ceased by February 1897. The Company is now owned by Lüke & Ortmeier Gruppe, and is based in Vauxhall, central London, under the supervision of Managing Director, Marc Newton.
John Rigby & Co. builds rifles based on Mauser barrelled actions, and double rifles based on its Rigby-Bissell 1879 Patent rising-bite action. Rigby also offers a serial-number research service; refurbishes vintage Rigbys for owners and collectors around the world; and maintains a Rigby collection in its showroom.
Some documents suggest the firm was established in 1735. However, since the first John Rigby was born in 1758, in Dublin, and entered the gunmaking trade there in 1775, Rigby today claims that as its founding date. (If John Rigby took over another gunmaking house, he would have inherited its founding date, in which case 1735 could be valid.) The surviving business ledgers date from 1781 and show that by then John Rigby was making, under his own name, shotguns, rifles, muskets, spring guns, carbines, blunderbusses and pistols to clients’ specifications and a wide range of prices.
Rigby was nearly bankrupted during the Irish Rebellion of 1798 when the government seized the arms on his premises – those belonging to the firm and to its clients – presumably to keep them out of the reach of rebels. However, by 1810 (if not sooner) John Rigby had rebuilt his business and, in addition to sporting guns, was making, updating and repairing thousands of guns for Ireland’s police, military, postal and customs services.
After the founding John Rigby’s death, in 1818, his sons William and John Jason Rigby operated the business as W. & J. Rigby from circa 1820 to 1865, a period that spanned flintlock, percussion, pinfire and needlefire ignition and marked the start of the modern metallic cartridge era. Rigby was a leader in barrel-making and rifling technology and, at the time, it was also recognised for its high grade duelling pistols. (Irish gentlemen especially had a fondness for calling each other out over perceived slights to their honour.)
The third John Rigby, born in 1829 in Dublin and educated in science at Trinity College, took over in 1858 when William, his father, died. It was this John Rigby who brought the firm to international prominence. In 1865, capitalising on the awards his family’s guns had earned at the Great Exhibition in London in 1851 and at the Paris Exhibition of 1855, in 1865 John Rigby opened a store at 72 St James’s Street in London’s West End. Sometime in the 1890s, Rigby sold his Dublin operations to Trulock & Harriss (keeping, however, his customers in Ireland) and became a bona fide member of the small circle of elite gunmakers who catered for London society.
Like his grandfather, the third John Rigby was a top target shot. He won several Wimbledon Cups (the premier long-range rifle championship in the United Kingdom) and, for 28 years, he helped form the Irish national shooting team. Rigby also won the Abercorn Cup and the first Gordon Bennett Cup, and was Irish Champion three times. Between circa 1860 and 1875, the Rigby .451-calibre muzzleloader was the match rifle of choice throughout the United Kingdom. In October 1874, one such rifle was presented to Lt. Col. George A. Custer: the Irish team had dined with him, and President and Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant, in Chicago. The Irish were on an American tour following the first International Rile Match at the Creedmoor Range in New York. There, John Rigby had posted the highest individual scores among all competitors.
During the period from the Crimean War to the First World War, every facet of firearms and ammunition underwent radical change and thousands of related patents were filed in Britain, the United States and Europe. The areas of greatest interest were military rifles (a matter of grave national importance) and, because of their prestige, top-shelf sporting guns. John Rigby & Co. was deeply involved in creating guns and cartridges for both markets. Because of his expertise, in 1887 the British government appointed John Rigby superintendent of the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield Lock. There, Rigby and his large staff resolved design and production problems for a new rifle and its cartridge: the .303-calibre Lee Enfield, which in various forms went on to serve as the principal battle rifle for the United Kingdom until 1957.
By government policy, at the age of 65, in 1894, John Rigby retired from government service. He returned to the family firm with the latest knowledge on repeating rifles, smokeless powder, metallurgy, rifling and bullet design, as well as international contacts at the highest levels of gunmaking. One of these was Peter Paul Mauser, and, in 1898, Rigby was appointed the exclusive importer and distributor for Mauser rifles and components for the British Empire. For sale under his family name, John Rigby also developed sporting versions of the G98 Mauser rifle and its ammunition, notably the 7x57mm infantry round. With hunting bullets, this became a highly successful stalking cartridge known as the .275 Rigby.
In 1912, John Rigby & Co. lost the exclusive British sales contract to a member of the Mauser family, but Rigby continued to base its magazine rifles on Mauser (and Mauser-style) actions and still does so today. Among professional and sporting hunters in India and Africa, Rigby became known as the ‘aristocrat of bolt-action rifles’.
In addition to its .275, Rigby developed an equally successful medium-heavy game round known as the .350 Rigby, and its rimmed counterpart for double rifles, the .350 No. 2.
At John Rigby’s request, in 1900 Mauser began to develop a stretched version of its G98 action for larger cartridges. This became known as the Magnum Mauser and has served as the foundation for countless bolt-action big-game rifles ever since. The larger action was originally meant for Rigby’s interim .400/.350 round, but in 1911 the company introduced the .416 Rigby cartridge for rifles built on the Magnum Mauser action. This was the first magazine rifle that could perform on a par with the powerful Nitro-Express double rifles, for one-third to one-fifth of their prices.
John Rigby was well versed in Nitro Express cartridges as well. In 1898, with the help of the Curtis’s & Harvey Gunpowder Company, he had introduced the first of them: the Rigby .450 NE. In 1899, however, the colonial government of India began to restrict .450-calibre rifles and ammunition, which forced British gunmakers to develop a flood of variations to avoid the India ban. The most popular of these proved to be the .470 Nitro Express, and John Rigby & Co. adopted this as its ‘standard’ heavy double-rifle load.
In addition to the pioneering Nitro Express cartridge, Rigby was also noted for the unique vertical-bolt or rising-bite action, used only on its best-grade double rifles and shotguns. Based on the Rigby-Bissell Patent of 1879, this is a complex and massively strong locking system with a post that rises vertically out of the break-off into a U-shaped loop extending rearward from the top rib of the barrels, as a third fastener. Between 1879 and 1933, Rigby built approximately one thousand rising-bite guns and rifles in many different bores. Today, these are coveted by shooters and collectors. Within a few weeks after the first new rising-bite action passed London proof, in November 2014, Rigby received orders for more than a dozen such rifles. Following the unveiling of the first completed modern rising-bite in January 2016, Rigby received over 20 further orders for rising-bite shotguns and rifles.
John Rigby died in 1916, leaving a prosperous business in the hands of his son, Theodore. After Theodore Rigby’s death, in 1951, the company was acquired by Vernon Harriss, who was a solicitor, business man, international rifle shot and last holder of the Royal Warrant. After Mr Harriss’ death in 1965, his widow sold the business in 1968 to a team of investors led by David Marx. Marx contracted with J. Roberts & Son, a London gun company established in 1959, to build Rigby guns. Paul Roberts, Joseph Roberts’ son, took over Rigby in 1982 and operated it until 1997. D.H.L. Black’s book, Great Irish Gunmakers: Messrs Rigby, 1760-1869, was published in 1992.
In 1997 Paul Roberts sold the Rigby name and other intellectual property to Neil Gibson of Texas, but kept the right to continue building certain Rigby guns and rifles in England, while Gibson began making Rigby weapons in California.
In 2010, two American investors, Jeff Meyer and John Reed, acquired the assets of John Rigby & Co.. They returned the manufacturing to London, J. Roberts & Son, and published the book Rigby: A Grand Tradition. The new owner also settled various trademark disputes and secured the historic Rigby archives.
In 2013 Rigby was sold to L&O Holding that owns J.P. Sauer & Sohn, Sig Sauer Inc., Blaser, and Mauser which has historic ties to Rigby including a collaboration prior to World War I on the development of the Magnum Mauser action for the Rigby .416 cartridge. L&O repatriated Rigby entirely to London, where it now has an office, showroom, and a factory at 13-19 Pensbury Place, SW8, in London’s Vauxhall district.
- No. 1976 of 1854 – a lever cartridge rammer for a revolver; a type of rifling; a safety hook for an outside-hammer lock; a means of joining barrels with straps and wedges; etc.
- No. 3140 of 1860 – a trapdoor-type gate to allow barrels to be loaded at their breeches (with J. Needham).
- No. 899 of 1860 – sideways-pivoting barrels; a drop-down revolver barrel; a needlefire cartridge; a cartridge lined with sheet brass; etc. (with William Norman).
- No. 1966 of 1862 (provisional) – a drop-down barrel that also moves horizontally; a breechblock cartridge extractor; a rifle foresight that adjusts for windage as well as range.
- No. 332 of 1867 (provisional) – a rebounding hammer for pistols and single- and double-barrel guns.
- No. 1098 of 1871 – a snap-action locking underlever; sub-gauge barrel liner tubes; etc.
- No. 312 of 1875 (provisional) – a method of choke boring a shotgun barrel (with M. W. Scott).
- No. 1141 of 1879 – ‘vertical/horizontal bolting for drop-down guns’ (with Thomas Bissell).
- No. 1361 of 1882 – a sidelever falling-block single-shot rifle (with Langrishe Fyers Banks).
- No. 16321 of 1888 – ‘bayonets attaching to gun barrels’.
- No. 301 of 1897 – a single-trigger mechanism (with M. A. and L. E. Atkins)
- No. 5554 of 1906 – ‘apparatus for teaching correct aiming with a rifle’.
Cartridges developed by John Rigby & Co.
- .450 Nitro Express (1898)
- .275 Rigby (1899)
- .400/.350 Nitro Express (1899)
- .350 Rigby and .350 Rigby No. 2 (1908)
- .416 Rigby (1911)
- .275 No 2 Magnum (1927)
- .450 Rigby Magnum Rimless (1995)
Notable clients and users (a partial list)
- HRH George IV
- Lt. Col. George A. Custer
- Field Marshal Kitchener
- Col. Sir Aubrey Woolls Sampson
- Frederick Courney Selous
- Kermit Roosevelt
- W. D. M. ‘Karamojo’ Bell
- HRH Edward VII
- Yetta III, Paramount Chief of the Barotse
- Ishe Kwando of Lealui
- King Lewanika of Barotseland
- HRH the King of Swaziland
- The Hon. Denys Finch-Hatton
- HRH George V
- Philip Percival
- Sir Winston Churchill
- HRH George VI
- HRH the Prince Colloredo-Mansfield
- HRH Maximillian, Prince of Furstenberg
- Count Trauttmansdorff
- Sir Charles Ross, 9th Baronet
- E. J. ‘Jim’ Corbett
- Count Pierre of Polignac
- Carl Gustaf Mannerheim
- HRH the Kabaka of Buganda
- HRH Prince William of Sweden
- HRH Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein
- John ‘Pondoro’ Taylor
- John A. Hunter
- Robert E. ‘Pete’ Petersen
- Harry Selby
- Wilbur Smith
- HRH Elizabeth II
- President George H. W. Bush
Rigby rifles and guns were also popular among the royalty of India and Asia, including Sheikh Abdullah and the Emir of Afghanistan as well as the nawabs, rajas, maharajas, maharanas and other rulers of the princely states of Alwar, Berar, Bharatpur, Bhopal, Bijawar, Idar, Jhalawar, Jhind, Jodhpur, Karauli, Kashmir, Khairpur, Kutch, Patiala, Pooch, Rewa, Surguja, Tikari, Udaipur and Uliver.
John Rigby & Co. held royal appointment to:
- King George IV
- The Prince of Wales (1885)
- King Edward VII
- King George V
- King George VI
- Queen Elizabeth II (Warrant no longer held).
One of the guys I shoot against on the range kills de-ah with a Ruger Deerstalker .44 magnum semi auto, which is one of the most inaccurate rifles built since automobiles ran on steam.
I’ve known gunsmiths to turn off the lights and hide under a bench when they saw a customer approaching with a Deerstalker.
There are a great many hunters who, if they can put a round on a pie plate at 50 yards, consider themselves all set, and they’re right.
Warren Page’s legendary 7mm Mashburn, Old Betsy, with which he slew everything on Noah’s Ark, at all ranges out to 500 yards, grouped into 1½ inches, and Lefty was an accuracy fanatic. But that was all he needed, and he knew it.
I have nearly 60 years of big-game hunting under my belt, and if I were to average up the groups of everything I hunted with, it would probably come out to one MOA even. But I didn’t need it.
Competition shooters, on the other hand, take on targets that are very small, and very far away—300 yards to 1,200. Rather than the one or two rounds you expend at game, they fire 40 to 80 rounds for record. And, most important, they’re competing against people who are tremendously skillful, so there’s no margin for error. None. Zero.
Most of the matches I’ve seen have been won or lost by a single point out of a possible 400, or by a single X.
So they do need a quarter-minute rifle, and they’ll spend $5,000 to $7,000 to get one. You start with a custom action, such as the ones Mark-1 saw, which costs anywhere from $1,000 to $1,400, and this is without a trigger, which is another $300.
A competition stock, synthetic, inletted, is $500 to $600. A really good barrel, contoured, but with no other work done, $350. A first-rate scope, and rings, and base, pretty close to $3,000. The rest of it goes for fitting everything together.
One advantage of going this route is that, if you’re an experienced shooter, you have some pretty strong ideas about what you want, and you can get it, not something that’s almost right.
Then there are aesthetics. Would you like a fluted bolt? A fluted bolt provides grooves in which powder fouling collects, and you get to clean it out with a Q-Tip, but it does look very cool.
Or you could opt for laminated wood, which looks much nicer than fiberglass, and for a competition rifle, which is going to be used only for a few hours at a clip, and mostly in warm weather, and not sit out in the sleet all day, it will probably prove every bit as stable as fiberglass.
Rifles of this sort are as necessary for hunting as a Bentley is for taking your kids to school. If you research competition rifles on the Internet you enter an alternative universe that will make you feel ignorant and underprivileged. But be of serene mind.
It has nothing to do with hunting. Your Ruger Deerstalker will do just fine.
Someday I will add one to the old & modest collection……
“Pre-B” version of the CZ 75.
|Place of origin||Czechoslovakia
|Used by||See Users|
|Designer||Josef and František Koucký|
|No. built||1,000,000+ (October 12, 2007)|
|Variants||see Variants and Derivatives|
|Weight||1.12 kg (2.47 lb)|
|Length||206.3 mm (8.1 in)|
|Barrel length||120 mm (4.7 in)|
|Width||32.6mm (1.3 in)|
|Height||138mm (5.4 in)|
|Action||short recoil, fixed barrel, double/single|
|Rate of fire||semi-automatic|
|Effective firing range||25 m (for 9mm CZ-75 family and CZ-75 Automatic)|
|Feed system||detachable box magazine, 12–26 rd depending on version and caliber|
|Sights||Front blade, rear square notch|
The CZ P-01
|Place of origin||Czech Republic|
|Used by||Czech police|
|Weight||0.77 kg (1.7 lb) with empty magazine|
|Length||184 mm (7.2 in)|
|Barrel length||98.5 mm (3.9 in)|
|Width||35 mm (1.4 in)|
|Height||128 mm (5.3 in)|
|Action||short recoil, tilting barrel|
|Rate of fire||semi-automatic|
|Feed system||detachable box magazine|
|Sights||Front blade, rear square notch|
The CZ 75 is a pistol made by Česká zbrojovka Uherský Brod (CZUB) in the Czech Republic. First introduced in 1975, it is one of the original “wonder nines” featuring a staggered-column magazine, all-steel construction, and a hammer forged barrel. It is widely distributed throughout the world. It is the most common handgun in the Czech Republic.
Development of CZ 75
The armament industry was an important part of the interwarCzechoslovak economy and made up a large part of the country’s exports (see, for example, Bren light machine gun, which was a modified version of the Czechoslovak ZB vz. 26). However following the 1948 communist coup d’état, all heavy industry was nationalized and was (at least officially) cut off from its Western export market behind the Iron Curtain. While most other Warsaw Pactcountries became dependent on armaments imports from the Soviet Union, most of the Czechoslovak weaponry remained domestic (for example, the Czechoslovak army used the Vz. 58 assault rifle, while other communist bloc countries used variants of the AK-47).
Following the Second World War, brothers Josef and František Koucký became the most important engineers of the CZUB. They participated to some extent on designing all the company’s post-war weapons. Kouckýs signed their designs together, using only the surname, making it impossible to determine which one of them developed particular ideas.
By 1969 František Koucký was freshly retired, however the company offered him a job on designing a new 9×19mm Parabellum pistol. Unlike during his previous work, this time he had a complete freedom in designing the whole gun from scratch. The design he developed was in many ways new and innovative (see Design details).
Although the model was developed for export purposes (the standard pistol cartridge of the Czechoslovak armed forces was the Soviet 7.62×25mm Tokarev, which was later replaced with the Warsaw Pact standard 9mm Makarov pistol cartridge), Koucký’s domestic patents regarding the design were classified as “secret patents”. Effectively, nobody could learn about their existence, but also nobody could register the same design in Czechoslovakia. At the same time Koucký as well as the company were prohibited from filing for patent protection abroad. Consequently, a large number of other manufacturers began offering pistols based on CZ 75 design (see Clones, copies, and variants by other manufacturers).
The pistol was not sold in Czechoslovakia until 1985, when it became popular among sport shooters (sport shooting is the third most widespread sport in the Czech Republic, after football and ice hockey). It was adopted by the Czech armed forces only after the Velvet Revolution in 1989.
Development of sport variants of CZ 75
The increasing popularity of the IPSC competitions in the Czech Republic led to inception of CZUB‘s factory team in 1992. Initially, the sport shooters were using CZ 75s and CZ 85s. Stanislav Křižík designed a new version called CZ 75 Champion already in 1992. This version had a SA trigger, a muzzle brake and adjustable weights. 150 firearms were initially made in 9×19mm Parabellum, .40 S&W and 9×21mm. The design was further modified (i.e. the adjustable weights were eliminated, a new compensator was developed), however its main shortcoming of the same capacity as the standard CZ 75 magazines (15/16 in 9mm, 12 in .40 S&W) remained.
The CZ 75 ST (Standard) and CZ 75 M (Modified) were introduced in 1998. These had a different frame from standard versions allowing for more modifications. While the ST had become very successful, M was not initially designed for use with collimator, the use of which led to limited lifespan of its frame.
The popular ST version was further developed mostly with aim of prolonging its lifespan, which led to introduction of CZ 75 TS (Tactical Sports) in 2005. It uses a longer barrel (132 mm) and has also a higher weight (1,285 g) compared to the standard model. High-capacity magazines may use either 20 of the 9mm rounds or 17 of the .40 rounds. As of 2013, the model is used by the CZUB’s factory shooters in the IPSC Standard division, with a custom-made version CZ 75 Tactical Sports Open being also available.
In 2009, the sale of CZ 75 TS Czechmate began. The model is a development of the CZ 75 TS Open, available in 9×19mm Parabellum and 9×21mm with magazine capacity of 20 or 26 rounds. As standard, the gun is sold with US made C-More Systems’ collimator. CZUB claims that its factory shooter Martin Kameníček had shot 150,000 rounds through the gun in 5 years, in which time he only needed to change the barrel once in order to maintain precision.
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The CZ 75 is a short recoil operated, locked breech pistol. It uses the Browning linkless cam locking system similar to that used in the Browning Hi-Power pistol, where the barrel and slide are locked together on firing, using locking lugs milled into the barrel mating with recesses in the roof of the slide. An enclosed cam track integral with the barrel is actuated by the slide release lever’s transverse pin. After the first few millimetres of the recoil stroke, the barrel is cammed downwards at the rear, enabling the slide to continue the recoil stroke and eject the spent cartridge.
Most models have the capability of being fired in both single and double-action modes, and feature a frame-mounted manual safety. Some recent models have a decocking lever that doubles as a manual safety. Starting in the early 1990s, all CZ 75s have been made with firing pin blocks, designated by the letter B (as in CZ 75B).
The CZ 75 was one of the first high-capacity 9mm pistols with a manual safety similar to that of the Browning Hi-Power. This allows the CZ 75 to be carried with the hammer cocked with safety applied and a round chambered, ready for use simply by switching the safety off, a configuration known as condition 1. It is somewhat unusual for double-action pistols to have this “cocked and locked” type of safety; most such as the Walther P38 and the Beretta 92F have a combination safety/decocking lever (as do some later versions of the CZ 75). The trade-off of this configuration is that to uncock the hammer for a double-action first shot, the hammer must be dropped manually by pulling the trigger while lowering the hammer with the firer’s thumb under control. Once lowered in this manner, a double-action first shot can be achieved in a similar manner to other double-action pistols without actuating any controls. Subsequent shots will be single-action unless the hammer is again manually lowered.
All non-double-action only CZ-75 variants feature a “half-cock” notch. This is not a safety position, but rather an operator aid to provide a safe place to manually decock the pistol. All of the “decocker” models decock to this position, and the manual advises not to attempt to place the hammer further on any model.
Unlike most other semi-auto pistols, the slide rides inside the frame rails, similar to the SIG P210, rather than outside. This provides a tight slide-to-frame fit and a very efficient barrel lock-up, both of which contribute to its accuracy.
On current models frames are cast and slides are machined from forgings, though forged frames have been used in very early production models. The six-groove barrel has traditional land-and-groove rifling with a higher-than-standard rate of twist (1 in 9.7).
Variants and derivatives 
CZ variants of the CZ 75 include:
- CZ 75
- The original CZ 75, easily identified by the heavily stepped slide and short slide rails.
- CZ 75
- Late version, easily identified by longer slide rails and shorter slide-step.
- CZ 75 B
- Second-generation CZ 75, upgraded with an internal firing pin safety, squared and serrated trigger guard, and ring hammer.
- CZ 75 BD
- A variant of the now-common CZ 75B (B standing for firing pin Block) with a decocker replacing the traditional manual safety. (D stands for Decocker.) This variant is quickly becoming the most common of the CZ 75B models, due to the additional safety the decocker safety provides.
- CZ 75 BD POLICE
- Variant of the CZ 75 BD equipped with loaded chamber indicator, reversible magazine catch, lanyard ring, checkered front and back strap of the grip and serrated trigger as standard. Most POLICE models have “POLICE” stamped on the slide. A smaller amount exclude “POLICE” but have front slide serrations.
- CZ 75 B Stainless
- Stainless steel version of the CZ 75 B. Available in a high gloss and matte stainless finish. Also available in the New/Limited Edition (sand blasted finish with sides of the slide and frame decoratively ground). All stainless models feature ambidextrous safeties.
- CZ 75B Omega
- A version of the CZ 75B with a factory-reworked trigger group. It is available chambered for 9 mm or .40 S&W.
- CZ 85
- An updated version of the CZ 75 that’s also ambidextrous.
- CZ 85B
- A CZ 85 with a firing pin block.
- CZ 85BD
- A CZ 85 B with a decocking lever, instead of a safety.
- CZ 85 Compact
- A limited production compact CZ 85 with under-barrel accessory rail and chambered in .40 S&W. Identical to the current CZ 75 compact in .40 S&W.
- CZ 85 Combat
- adds an adjustable rear sight, extended magazine release, drop-free magazine and overtravel adjustment on the trigger. Lacks a firing pin safety so that firing pins can be replaced without special fitting.
- CZ 97B
- .45 ACP version of the CZ 75 B
- CZ 97 BD
- .45 ACP version of the CZ 75 BD
- CZ 75 Compact
- A standard CZ 75 with a slightly shortened grip and 3.9-inch barrel. There is now a version available chambered for the .40 S&W.
- CZ 75 SemiCompact
- Combines the frame, grip and capacity of the full size CZ 75 with the shortened (by 20mm) barrel and slide of the CZ 75 Compact.
- CZ 75 PČR Compact
- Very compact – similar to the P-01 in size, but lacks an M3 rail frame and features a smaller muzzle point and snag free sights. A popular choice for a carry weapon, known for its inherent accuracy and weight distribution.
- CZ 75B SA
- A CZ 75 which has a single-action trigger mechanism and a drop-free magazine. It is available chambered for 9 mm or .40 S&W.
- CZ 75B DAO
- A CZ 75 that has a longer and heavier, constant trigger pull (double-action only). Chambered for 9mm and .40 S&W. Featuring no external safety or decocker. As well as a bobbed hammer. This model is no longer in production.
- CZ 75 P-01
- A CZ 75 Compact variant intended for law enforcement use, with an aluminum alloy frame, decocker and under-barrel accessory rail. It is the new weapon of choice for the Czech National Police since 2001. It received NATO certification after undergoing extensive testing. Its NATO Stock Number (NSN) is 1005-16-000-8619.
- CZ 75 P-06
- Same as the P-01 but in .40 S&W
- CZ 75 P-07 DUTY
- The CZ P-07 DUTY is a compact, polymer-framed CZ 75 variant notable for having a redesigned trigger mechanism. The redesign has reduced the number of parts as well as improved the trigger pull. The exterior restyling was greatly influenced by the SPHINX 3000 design (itself being an enhanced Swiss CZ 75 clone). Chambered in 9mm Luger and .40 S&W, the CZ P-07 DUTY also includes the ability to change the manual safety to a decocking lever and vice versa through an exchange of parts.
- CZ P-09 Duty
- Full size version of the P-07
- CZ 75 SP-01/SP-01 Tactical
- Similar to the P-01 with accessory rail, but with all-steel construction and utilizing the full-size frame and slide as well as incorporating extended-capacity 18-round magazines. It is available with an ambidextrous manual safety (SP-01) or with an ambidextrous decocker (SP-01 Tactical). The CZ 75 (SP-01) was designed for multiple purposes including but not limited to: a military/law enforcement duty sidearm, sidearm for counter-terrorism forces, and field/target shooting. Used in the 2005 IPSCWorld Shoot XIV by World Champions Adam Tyc and Angus Hobdell (1st and 3rd place respectively in the production division).
- CZ 75 SP-01 Shadow
- New generation of CZ 75 SP-01 pistol especially adapted according to suggestions as proposed by users from Law Enforcement, Military and Police communities worldwide, with an additional input from the Team CZ shooters Angus Hobdell and Adam Tyc. Based on the SP-01, it has no firing pin block resulting in improved trigger travel. It also features a slightly reshaped grip and safety, a “weaker” recoil spring for easier loading, and fiber optic front sight and tactical “Novak style” rear sight.
In 2017 an improved version of the shadow was released; titled the shadow 2 it included a longer barrel, more aggressive slide serrations and a smaller fiber optic in the front sight.
- CZ 75 SP-01 Phantom
- The CZ 75 Phantom has a polymer frame, is 33% lighter than steel frame models, with accessory rail and a forged steel slide with a weight saving scalloped profile. Two Interchangeable grip rear strap inserts are included with the Phantom to accommodate users with different sized hands. The pistol is further outfitted with a decocking lever. A CZ 75 variant designed specifically for IPSC competition with extended grip, single-action trigger, heavy-duty free-falling magazines, and an enlarged magazine well. A competition version designed for Open Division IPSC competition, with three port compensator, adjustable trigger, extended magazine release, ambidextrous safeties, fully adjustable sights and two-tone finish, with blued slide and satin nickel frame. Czech Army Paratroopers of the 4th Rapid Deployment Brigade are fully equipped with this pistol from January 2012.
- CZ 75 Standard IPSC
- A CZ 75 variant designed specifically for IPSC competition with extended grip, single-action trigger, heavy-duty free-falling magazines, and an enlarged magazine well.
- CZ 75 Tactical Sports
- Replacing the ST IPSC was the Tactical Sports model, which featured minor improvements over its very similar predecessor. Available in 9×19mm (20 rounds) or .40 S&W (17 rounds).
- CZ 75 Champion
- A competition version designed for Open Division IPSC competition, with three port compensator, adjustable trigger, extended magazine release, ambidextrous safeties, fully adjustable sights and two-tone finish, with blued slide and satin nickel frame.
- CZ 75 TS Czechmate
- A competition variant based on the Tactical Sports model, equipped with a compensator and electronic red-dot sight on a frame mount. Designed especially for IPSC Open Division (and replacing the older Champion model), the Czechmate presents a turnkey solution for the sport, offering a complete competitive package including additional magazines and spare parts.
- CZ 2075 RAMI
- A subcompact version of the CZ 75 intended for concealed carry. Features a 3-inch barrel, aluminum frame and low-profile sights. Available in 9×19mm or .40 S&W, with standard magazine capacities of 10 (9×19mm) and 8 (.40 S&W) rounds, respectively. An optional 14-round magazine is available for the 9 mm version.
- CZ 2075 RAMI BD
- Same as the 2075 RAMI but includes a decocker and tritium sights.
- CZ 2075 RAMI P
- Polymer framed version
- CZ 75 Kadet/ Kadet 2
- A .22 LR caliber slide/ barrel assembly and magazine kit to fit onto most standard CZ 75B frames (except the Tactical Sport and SP-01 Phantom). The Kadet also used to be sold as a complete pistol (slide assembly and frame), but is now only sold as a slide assembly to be mounted on existing frames. The 2nd generation conversion kit currently being sold is called the “Kadet 2”, and includes a dedicated .22 slide stop that locks the slide back on an empty magazine. Night sights are optional.
- CZ 75 AUTOMATIC
- A selective-fire variant introduced in 1992 intended for law enforcement and military use. One distinguishing characteristic of earlier models is its longer compensated barrel although later models may have a standard barrel. An extra magazine can be attached to the front to act as a makeshift foregrip.
Clones, copies, and variants by other manufacturers
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Today the CZ factory is located in the Czech Republic (EU) and the handgun is offered worldwide. However, during the Cold War, Czechoslovakia was part of the Warsaw Pactand thoroughly communist in its political outlook. The CZ 75 was the first 9mm semi-auto pistol developed expressly for sale to the West and it offered new ideas in auto-pistol manual safety design, being a dual mode design. It could be carried in the conventional double-action/single-action mode of operation, or it could be carried “cocked and locked” like the 1911 pistol.
Due to a 60 percent duty on Czech-made products at the time and because CZ failed to secure world patent protection for their design, CZ could not market their pistol in the United States when it debuted. Instead, the Italian firm Fratelli Tanfoglio made and marketed the pistol to the West.
Two shooters, American Doug Koenig and Frenchman Eric Grauffel, won the IPSC World Championship using pistols based on the CZ 75 design (all other World Champions up to the time had used pistols based on the John Browning 1911 format). Other notable copies/clones are those of Sphinx Systems.
The clones, copies and variants by other manufacturers include:
- FAMAE FN-750
- Norinco NZ-75
- CZ-Strakonice CZ-TT
- Renato Gamba G90
- Tanfoglio TZ-75, T-90 and T-95
- IMI Jericho 941 and Magnum Research Baby Eagle
- BUL Cherokee and Storm
- Baek Du San “백두산권총” (North Korea)
- Armscor MAP1 and MAPP1
- Military Industry Corporation Marra and Lado
- Sphinx Systems Sphinx 2000, Sphinx 3000 and Sphinx SDP
- ITM AT-84 AT-88
- Sarsılmaz Kılınç 2000 & Armalite AR-24
- Tristar C-100 & Canik 55 Piranha
- JSL (Hereford) Ltd Spitfire (No longer in business since 1996)
- Dornaus & Dixon Bren Ten
- Vltor Bren Ten
- EAA Witness Elite Gold
- Springfield P9
- Many countries use copies and clones produced by local manufacturers (see above). This incomplete list only includes users of the original Czech-made CZ 75 and its variations.
- Brazil: Used by the Brazilian Armed Forces
- Bulgaria: Used by the Ministry of Interior
- Chile: Used by Chilean Army Main handgun
- Czech Republic: Used by the Czech Armed Forces. Also used by Czech policeforces.
- Egypt: Primary firearm of law enforcement since 2013
- El Salvador: Used by the Salvadoran armed forces and the civilian national police.
- Finland: Used by The Finnish Customs
- Greece: Hellenic Police
- Israel: Shin Bet
- Kazakhstan: 75 pistols CZ-75B and 30 pistols CZ-75D were bought in 1998.These pistols are used by police SWAT teams.
- Macedonia: CZ75 Used by Army of the Republic of Macedonia
- Mexico: CZ P09 used by selected units of Federal Police since 2014
- Philippines: Department of Interior and Local Government
- Poland: Polish police (limited use).
- Russian Federation: Used by law enforcement.
- Serbia: SP-01 Shadow is used by Special Forces of Police.
- Singapore: Singapore Police Force
- Slovakia: Slovak rail police, military police and the elite paramilitary tactical unit (Slovak: Kukláči).
- South Africa
- Spain: Used by the Municipal police
- Thailand: Used by Royal Thai Army special units and Ministry of Interior.
- Turkey: General Directorate of Security
- United States: Used by several police departments and Delta Force.
- “THE CZ 75 PISTOL MODEL PASSED ONE MILLION PIECES” (Press release). 2007-10-22. Archived from the original on 2008-06-30.
- “Zašlapané projekty Pistole CZ 75”. Česká televize (in Czech). Retrieved 2011-02-23.
- Kyša, Leoš (January 28, 2011). “Počet legálně držených zbraní v Česku stoupá. Už jich je přes 700 tisíc” (in Czech). ihned.cz. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
- Kučera, Pavel (2013), “CZ 75 TS Czechmate Parrot”, Zbraně & náboje (5): 10–15
- “CZUSA CZ P-01 gets NATO approval” (Press release). 2003-02-01. Archived from the original on 2009-02-17.
- “CZ 75 SP-01 Tactical – CZ-USA”.
- “CZ 75 SP01 9mm, light rail, safety, black polycoat 91152”. Czcustom.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- “CZ 75 SP01 SHADOW 9mm 91154 Black CZ Custom Exclusive”. Czcustom.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- James, Frank (2004). Frank James: Effective handgun defence. Iola, WI: Krause Publications.
- “Gun Review: Sphinx 3000: “Built like a fine Swiss watch””. Guns.com. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- “The CZ-75 and Its Early Clones”. gundigest.com. Retrieved 2011-02-23.
- “Modern handguns – CZ 75 pistol (Czech Republic)”. World guns. Retrieved 2011-03-01.
- A Czech emigrant Ing. Tůma was among first to start manufacturing direct copies of CZ 75. Soon he developed own variant of the pistol, which he later offered to Swiss company Sphinx. Sphinx continues to manufacture its own variants of CZ 75 up today. See Zašlapané projekty Pistole CZ 75 (Czech)
- “EAA Witness”. shootingillustrated.com. Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- “Gun Review: CZ P-09 Duty”. The Truth About Guns. Retrieved 2014-01-02.
- Poole, Eric R. (2011), “TORTURE TEST: CZ-USA 75 P-07 DUTY IN .40 S&W.”(PDF), Guns & Ammmo (CZ-USA Special Collector’s Edition): 6–12, archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-21
- “Ruční zbraně AČR” (PDF). Army.cz. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- “Naše pistole střílela, i když ji Egypťané máčeli v blátě, říká manažer České zbrojovky”. ihned.cz. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
- “Georgian Army”. Georgian Army. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
- Постановление Правительства Республики Казахстан № 744 от 5 августа 1998 года “О разрешении Министерству внутренних дел Республики Казахстан ввоза оружия с боеприпасами и принадлежностями из Чешской Республики”
- on YouTube
- on YouTube
- “Česká zbrojovka dodá mexické policii zbraně za 180 milionů”. Aktuálně.cz – Víte co se právě děje. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- JSK Internet. “Z czego strzela Policja? (nr 51 06.2009)”. Policja 997. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- “Lenta.ru: Наука и техника: Прокуроров и следователей вооружат новыми пистолетами”. Lenta.ru. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- “Specijalne-jedinice.com – CZ-75 SP-01 Shadow”. specijalne-jedinice.com.
- Tuoi Tre Newspaper. “Police to expand investigation into smuggled guns detected at Vietnam airport”. tuoitrenews.vn.
- “Týmito zbraňami nás polícia chráni”. pluska.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 2011-03-01.
- “รายชื่ออาวุธยุทโธปกรณ์ในกองทัพอาเซียน”. Thaiarmedforce.com. Retrieved 9 December2014.
- Fred J. Pushies: Weapons of Delta Force, Zenith Imprint, 2010, page 53
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to CZ-75.|
|Remington Model 11/Browning Auto-5|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||See Users|
Rhodesian Bush War
Fabrique Nationale Herstal (Belgique)
|Variants||Remington Model 11, Savage Model 720 and Model 745|
|Weight||4.1 kilograms (9.0 lb)|
|Length||127 centimetres (50 in)|
|Barrel length||71.1 centimetres (28.0 in) |
|Cartridge||12 gauge, 16 gauge, 20 gauge|
|Feed system||Two or four round tubular magazine, plus 1 in the chamber|
The Browning Automatic 5, most often Auto-5 or simply A-5, is a recoil-operatedsemi-automatic shotgun designed by John Browning. It was the first successful semi-automatic shotgun design, and remained in production until 1998. The name of the shotgun designates that it is an autoloader with a capacity of five rounds, four in the magazine and one in the chamber. Remington Arms sold a variant called the Remington Model 11 that was nearly identical but lacked the magazine cutoff found on the Browning.
The Browning Auto-5 was the first mass-produced semi-automatic shotgun. Designed by John Browning in 1898 and patented in 1900, it was produced continually for almost 100 years by several makers with production ending in 1998. It features a distinctive high rear end, earning it the nickname “Humpback”. The top of the action goes straight back on a level with the barrel before cutting down sharply towards the buttstock. This distinctive feature makes it easy to identify A-5s from a distance. A-5s were produced in a variety of gauges, with 12 and 20 predominating; 16 gauge (not produced between 1976 and 1987) models were also available. The gun saw military service worldwide between World War I and the Vietnam War. A Remington Model 11 was used in the suicide of Kurt Cobain.
John Browning presented his design (which he called his best achievement) to Winchester, where he had sold most of his previous designs. When Winchester refused his terms, Browning went to Remington. Tragically, the president of Remington died of a heart attack as Browning waited to offer them the gun. This forced Browning to look overseas to produce the shotgun. It was manufactured by FN (a company that had already produced Browning-designed pistols) starting in 1902. Browning would later license the design to Remington, which produced it as their Model 11 (1905–1947). The Remington Model 11 was the first auto-loading shotgun made in the USA. Savage Arms also licensed the design from Browning and produced it as their model 720 from 1930 to 1949, and their model 745 with an alloy receiver and two-shot magazine from 1941 to 1949. Browning’s long-recoil design itself served as the operating system for subsequent Remington (11-48), Savage (755, 775) and Franchi (AL-48) models.
Production of the Auto-5 in Belgium continued until the start of World War II, when Browning moved production to Remington Arms in the United States. The Auto-5 was produced by Remington alongside the Model 11 until FN could resume making the gun after the war. Unlike the Remington Model 11, the Remington-produced Browning shotguns had magazine cutoffs. Some 850,000 Remington Model 11 shotguns were produced before production ended in 1947. In 1952, production of Browning models returned to FN, where it continued until the end. However, the majority of production moved to the Japanese company Miroku in 1975. Finally, in 1998, manufacture of A-5s ceased except for a few commemorative models created at FN in 1999. As of 1983 it was well established as the second-best-selling auto-loading shotgun in U.S. history, after the Remington 1100.
In 2014 Browning released the A5, a recoil-operated shotgun with external resemblance to the Auto 5, which is being manufactured in Belgium, assembled in Portugal.
The Browning Auto-5 is a long-recoil operated semi-automatic shotgun. Shells are stored in a tubular magazine under the barrel. When a chambered shell is fired, the barrel and bolt recoil together (for a distance greater than the shell length) and re-cock the hammer. As the barrel returns forward to its initial position the bolt remains behind and thus the spent shell is ejected through a port on the top of the receiver. Then the bolt returns forward and feeds another shell from the magazine into the action. This type of long recoil action was the first of its kind and patented in 1900 by John Browning.
To load the gun, shells are fed into the bottom of the action, where they are pushed into the tubular magazine. Most A-5s have removable plugs in the magazine which prevent more than three shells from being loaded (two in the magazine, plus one in the chamber) to comply with U.S. Federal migratory waterfowl laws, as well as some state hunting regulations. With the plug removed, the total capacity is five rounds. If the chamber is open (the operating handle is drawn back) the first shell loaded into the magazine tube will go directly into the chamber (there is a manual bolt closing button under the ejection port), the bolt then closes, and all further shells fed into the gun go into the magazine.
The A-5 has a system of friction piece or pieces and bevel rings which retard the barrel’s rearward travel. Setting these rings correctly is vital to good shotgun performance and to ensure a long life to the weapon, by controlling excessive recoil. The friction rings are set based on the type of load to be fired through the gun. Different settings can be found in the owner’s manual.