All About Guns

Smith & Wesson Victory Revolver Nickel in .38 Special

SMITH & WESSON INC - Victory Revolver Nickle 38spl - Picture 1
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SMITH & WESSON INC - Victory Revolver Nickle 38spl - Picture 5

I have seen a lot of these over the years and fired a few rounds thru them over the years. So I can say that that they are a fun if not super accurate revolver.
But they are a good solid pistol for both home defense & a starter pistol for the Rookie. That will not break the bank either.

Smith & Wesson Model 10

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Smith & Wesson Model 1899 Military & Police

Lend-Lease M&P dating from World War II, missing lanyard ring
Type Service revolver
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1899-Present
Used by See Users
Wars World War I
Easter Rising
Irish War of Independence
World War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
Gulf War
The Troubles
other conflicts
Production history
Designed 1899
Manufacturer Smith & Wesson
Produced 1899–present
Variants 38 M&P
M&P Model 1902
Model of 1905
Victory Model
Model 10
Weight ~ 34 oz (907 g) with standard 4″ (102 mm) barrel (unloaded)
Barrel length
  • 2 inches (51 mm)
  • 2.5 inches (64 mm)
  • 3 inches (76 mm)
  • 4 inches (100 mm)
  • 5 inches (130 mm)
  • 6 inches (150 mm)

Cartridge .38 Long Colt
.38 Special
.38/200 (.38 S&W)
Action Double action
Muzzle velocity 1,000 feet per second (300 m/s) (.38 Special)
685 feet per second (209 m/s) (.38/200)
Feed system 6-round cylinder
Sights Blade front sight, notched rear sight

The Smith & Wesson Model 10, previously known as the Smith & Wesson .38 Hand Ejector Model of 1899, the Smith & Wesson Military & Police or the Smith & Wesson Victory Model, is a revolver of worldwide popularity. It was the successor to the Smith & Wesson .32 Hand Ejector Model of 1896 and was the first Smith & Wesson revolver to feature a cylinder release latch on the left side of the frame like the Colt M1889. In production since 1899, it is a six-shot double-action revolver with fixed sights. Over its long production run it has been available with barrel lengths of 2 in (51 mm), 3 in (76 mm), 4 in (100 mm), 5 in (130 mm), and 6 in (150 mm). Barrels of 2.5 inches (64 mm) are also known to have been made for special contracts.[1] Some 6,000,000 of the type have been produced over the years, making it the most popular centerfire revolver of the 20th century.[2]

S&W model 10 snubnose


In 1899, the United States Army and Navy placed orders with Smith & Wesson for two to three thousand Model 1899 Hand Ejector revolvers chambered for the M1892 .38 Long Colt U.S. Service Cartridge. With this order, the Hand Ejector Model became known as the .38 Military and Police model.[3] That same year, in response to reports from military sources serving in the Philippines on the relative ineffectiveness of the new cartridge, Smith & Wesson began offering the Military & Police in a new chambering, .38 S&W Special (a.k.a. .38 Special), a slightly elongated version of the .38 Long Colt cartridge with greater bullet weight (158 grains) and powder charge increased from 18 to 21 grains of gunpowder.[3]
In 1902 the .38 Military & Police (2nd Model) was introduced, featuring substantial changes.[1] These included major modification and simplification of the internal lockwork and the addition of a locking underlug on the barrel to engage the previously free-standing ejector rod. Barrel lengths were 4, 5, 6, and 6.5 inches with a rounded butt. Serial numbers for the Military & Police ranged from number 1 in the series to 20,975. Most of the early M&P revolvers chambered in .38 Special appear to have been sold to the civilian market.[3] By 1904, S&W was offering the .38 M&P with a rounded or square butt, and 4-, 5-, and 6.5-inch barrels.
The .38 S&W Military & Police Model of 1905 4th Change, introduced 1915, incorporated a passive hammer block and enlarged service sights that quickly became a standard across the service revolver segment of the industry. Heat treating of cylinders began in 1919.[4]

The 1st Model M&P of 1899, six-inch barrel. The ejector rod is free-standing, without the under-barrel latch of later models

Smith & Wesson 1905 4th change 1915 Target model. “NRA”Slow Fire at 25 yards. This one left the factory in 1929 and was sent with ten others to a firm in Buenos Aires. The hammer was added later and is in the general form of the King Gun Shop modification usually intended for the timed and rapid fire portions of the NRA course.

The lockwork of the first model differed substantially from subsequent versions. The trigger return spring is a flat leaf rather than the coil spring-powered slide used in variations dating from 1905 onwards.

The M&P 1905 Fourth Change variant (1915). The lock mechanism remained principally unchanged after this model.

Victory Model[edit]

The S&W Model 10 military revolvers produced from 1942 to 1944 had serial numbers with a “V” prefix, and were known as the Smith & Wesson Victory Model. It is noteworthy that early Victory Models did not always have the V prefix. During World War II over 570,000 of these pistols were supplied to the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa under the Lend-Lease program, chambered in the British .38/200caliber already in use in the Enfield No 2 Mk I Revolverand the Webley Mk IV Revolver. Most Victory Models sent to Britain were fitted with 4-inch or 5-inch barrels, although a few early versions had 6-inch barrels.[5][6]
The Victory Model was used by United States forces during World War II, being chambered in the well-known and popular .38 Special cartridge. The Victory Model was a standard-issue sidearm for United States Navy and Marine Corps aircrews, and was also used by security guards at factories and defense installations throughout the United States during the war.[7]
Some of these revolvers remained in service well into the 1990s with units of the United States Armed Forces, including the Coast Guard. Until the introduction of the Beretta M9 9mm pistol in 1990, U.S. Army helicopter crew members and female military police officers were equipped with .38 caliber Victory Model revolvers. Criminal Investigation Division agents were issued .38 caliber revolvers with two inch barrels. The Victory Model remained in use with Air National Guard tanker and transport crews as late as Operation Desert Storm in 1991.[8]
Some Lend-Lease Victory Model revolvers originally chambered for the British .38/200 were returned to the United States and rechambered to fire the more popular and more powerful .38 Special ammunition, and such revolvers are usually so marked on their barrels. Rechambering of .38-200 cylinders to .38 Special results in oversized chambers, which may cause problems. Lee Harvey Oswald was carrying a re-chambered Victory Model when he was apprehended on November 22, 1963.[9]
The finish on Victory Models was typically a sandblasted and parkerized finish, which is noticeably different from the higher-quality blue or nickel/chrome finishes usually found on commercial M&P/Model 10 revolvers. Other distinguishing features of the Victory Model revolver are the lanyard loop at the bottom of the grip frame, and the use of smooth (rather than checkered) walnut grip panels. However some early models did use a checkered grip, most notably the pre-1942 manufacture.[10]

Post-World War II models[edit]

After World War II, Smith & Wesson returned to manufacturing the M&P series. Along with cosmetic changes and replacement of the frame fitting grip with the Magna stocks, the spring-loaded hammer block safety gave way to a cam-actuated hammer block that rode in a channel in the side plate (Smith 1968). In 1957, Smith & Wesson adopted the convention of using numeric designations to distinguish their various models of handguns, and the M&P was renamed the Model 10.[8]
The M&P/Model 10 has been available in both blued steel finish and nickel finish for most of its production run. The model has also been offered throughout the years with both the round butt and square butt, i.e., grip patterns. Beginning with the Model 10-5 series in the late 1960s, the tapered barrel and its trademark ‘half moon’ front sight (as shown in the illustrations on this page) were replaced by a straight bull barrel and a sloped milled ramp front sight. Late model Model 10s are capable of handling any .38 Special cartridge produced today up to and including +P+ rounds.[8]
As of 2012 the Model 10 was available only in a 4-inch barrel model, as was its stainless steel (Inox) counterpart, the Smith & Wesson Model 64.[11]

Model 10 Engineering and Production Changes Timeline[edit]

As the Model 10 evolved, the following Engineering and Production Changes were made:

  • 10 (1957): begin stamping model number.
  • 10-1 (1959): introduction of heavy barrel (the frame is slightly different for the heavy barrel, and changes to the standard-barrel variant were generally carried over to the heavy-barrel variant, thus the engineering changes happen in pairs)
  • 10-2 (1961): change extractor rod thread for standard barrel
  • 10-3 (1961): change extractor rod thread for heavy barrel, change front sight width from 1/10″ to 1/8″
  • 10-4 (1962): eliminate trigger-guard screw on standard barrel frame
  • 10-5 (1962): change sight width from 1/10 in to 1/8 in for standard barrel
  • 10-6 (1962): eliminate trigger-guard screw on heavy-barrel frame
  • 10-7 (1977): change gas ring from yoke to cylinder for standard barrel
  • 10-8 (1977): change gas ring from yoke to cylinder for heavy barrel
  • 10-9 (1988): new yoke retention system, radius stud package, floating hand hammer nose bushing for standard barrel
  • 10-10 (1988): new yoke retention system, radius stud package, floating hand hammer nose bushing for heavy barrel
  • 10-11 (1997): MIM hammer/trigger + floating firing pin for standard barrel
  • 10-12 (1997): MIM hammer/trigger + floating firing pin for heavy barrel
  • 10-13 (2002): limited production 1899 commemorative edition
  • 10-14 (2002): internal lock

.357 Magnum variations[edit]

After a small prototype run of Model 10-6 revolvers in .357 Magnum caliber, Smith & Wesson introduced the Model 13 heavy barrel in carbon steel and then the Model 65 in stainless steel. Both revolvers featured varying barrel weights and lengths—generally three and four inches with and without underlugs (shrouds). Production dates begin in 1974 for the Model 13 and end upon discontinuation in 1999. The Model 65 was in production from 1972-1999.[1] Both the blued and stainless models were popular with police and FBI, and a variation of the Model 65 was marketed in the Lady Smith line from 1992 to 1999.


Spanish copy of Smith & Wesson’s M & P as used by the Milice and chambered in 8mm French Ordance.

Many of the S & W Military & Police revolvers were captured and used by some of the police forces, such as the Austrian Police, during the occupation after World War II. It is incorrect to refer to them as “the Model 10” as model numbers were not introduced by Smith & Wesson until 1957. Note that, during First World War, copies (slightly undersized) of the Military & Police were produced in Eibar and Guernica (Spain), in 8mm 1892 caliber for the French armies; the Milice man on the right holds such a copy.
The weapon is currently[when?] used by French cash couriers and banks, Disciplined Services of Hong Kong, Myanmar Police Force officers and other Burmese paramilitary units, Peruvian National Police and other police units.
A few copies of Smith & Wesson Model 10 were produced in Israel by Israel Military Industries (IMI) as the Revolver IMI 9mm. The weapon was chambered in the 9mm Luger caliber, instead of .38 Special, the original caliber.[12][13] Also, Norinco of China has manufactured the NP50, which is a copy of the Smith & Wesson Model 64, since 2000.


The S&W Model 10 revolver was a popular weapon before the semi-automatic pistolreplaced the revolver in many police departments, as well as police units and armies.


Dear Grumpy Advice on Teaching in Today's Classroom

The Good Old Days of Teaching

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Now I am sure that some folks got carried away back then. But is what we have in these “progressive” days any better in school & society than back then?
Comments are welcome

All About Guns

Punt Guns, Yes there is such a gun!

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punt gun is a type of extremely large shotgun used in the 19th and early 20th centuries for shooting large numbers of waterfowl for commercial harvesting operations.
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Operation and usage[edit]

Sighting a punt gun

Punt guns were usually custom-designed and varied widely, but could have bore diameters exceeding 2 inches (51 mm) and fire over a pound (≈ 0.45 kg) of shot at a time.[1]
A single shot could kill over 50 waterfowl resting on the water’s surface.
They were too big to hold and the recoil was so large that they had to be mounted directly on punts used for hunting, hence their name.
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Hunters would manoeuvre their punts quietly into line and range of the flock using poles or oars to avoid startling them. Generally the gun was fixed to the punt; thus the hunter would manoeuvre the entire boat in order to aim the gun.
The guns were sufficiently powerful, and the punts themselves sufficiently small, that firing the gun often propelled the punt backwards several inches or more.Related image
To improve efficiency, hunters could work in fleets of up to around ten punts.

Size comparison of a man and punt gun

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In the United States, this practice depleted stocks of wild waterfowl and by the 1860s most states had banned the practice. Image result for punt gun
The Lacey Act of 1900 banned the transport of wild game across state lines, and the practice of market hunting was outlawed by a series of federal laws in 1918.
In the United Kingdom, a 1995 survey[which?] showed fewer than 50 active punt guns still in use. UK law limits punt guns to a bore diameter of 1.75 inches (44 mm) (1 1/8 pounder). Related image
Since Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee in 1897 there has been a punt gun salute every Coronation and Jubilee over Cowbit Wash in CowbitLincolnshire, England.[3]
During the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, 21 punt gun rounds were fired separately, followed by the guns all being fired simultaneously.[4]

Fictional usage

The 2004 film Tremors 4: The Legend Begins featured a punt gun used in combat.
This punt gun was custom-built for the film and was 8 feet 4 inches (2.54 m) long, weighed 94 pounds (43 kg), and had a 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) bore (classified as “A” gauge by the Gun Barrel Proof Act of 1868 in Schedule B).
The weapon was not actually of this bore, instead being a large prop shell concealing a 12 gauge shotgun firing triple-loaded black powder blanks, with the barrel sprayed with WD-40 lubricating oil to produce a large smoke cloud on firing.[5]
In his novel Chesapeake, author James A. Michener details the historical use of punt guns to hunt geese and ducks by the watermen of the Chesapeake Bay.
Desmond Bagley‘s 1973 thriller The Tightrope Men features a percussion-fired punt gun. Although set in northern Finland, punt guns were never used in the country.
In the novel Outer Dark, by Cormac McCarthy, the use of a four-gauge punt gun for hunting ducks is described.
In the Discworld novel Pyramids, mention is made of a “Punt bow”, essentially a combination of this weapon and a crossbow.
All I know is that I want one!
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How to Track a Human

Brett and Kate McKay | October 13, 2016

Manly SkillsSurvivalTactical Skills

How to Track a Human

man tracking human footprints on river bed illustration

It’s a common trope in classic Westerns. A posse is rounded up to find some bad guys who’ve headed out into the desert to hide. To help track them down, they bring on an Indian scout. To the astonishment of the cowboys, the native guide can determine how many people are in the bad guy’s gang, how long ago they camped at a particular spot, and that one of the ruffians is injured. It almost seems like magic.
But it’s not.
The scout was simply using a set of keen, field-developed senses, and practicing good forensics.
A few years ago when I did the ITS Tactical Muster, one of my favorite classes at the event was on human tracking, taught by professional combat tracker John Hurth. In just a few short hours, John was able to show us how to know what’s going on with someone on the lam and where he or she is headed simply by looking at their footsteps or noticing a broken branch.
Why would you need to know how to track a human? You’ll probably never have to go on a manhunt for a fugitive, but it’s a handy skill to have nonetheless. Maybe your kid wanders away from your house, or you lose a buddy in a remote wilderness area. Instead of wandering frantically and aimlessly, calling their name, you can know how to search for them effectively and efficiently.
Plus, once you know how to track a human, you can reverse engineer the process as well; that is, you’ll better be able to make your own escape without leaving a trail. You know, just in case you find yourself on an island, being chased by a stalker playing “the most dangerous game.”
Below, we provide a primer on tracking humans. Keep in mind, to really learn how to do this stuff, you need to practice it and practice it for years. But with some dedication, you may eventually reach the level of tracking evinced by the crack trackers in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, of whom the protagonists repeatedly said with exasperation, “Who are those guys?”

Develop Your Situational Awareness

The most important attribute a tracker must develop is his situational awareness. Without it, clues and signs that would lead him to his target go unnoticed.
Situational awareness comes down to two things: 1) observing, and 2) correctly interpreting your observations.
Learning how to become more observant takes time and dedication. It requires changing your mindset, training your memory and senses, and daily practice in truly noticing what you see. Fortunately, we have some fantastic guides on how to do all of those things:

Once you sharpen your powers of observation, you next need to know how to correctly interpret what you see, in order to reach correct conclusions about what’s going on. To do that, you must broaden and deepen your mental models.

Broaden and Deepen Your Mental Models

Mental models are simply ways of looking at and understanding the world. These paradigms create our expectations for how the world works — helping us grasp what’s happened before, what’s happening now, and what’s likely to happen next.
For a tracker, the mental models he needs to broaden and deepen the most are the ones that will better help him find his target. These fall into two main categories: environment and psychology/habits.


The most obvious subject a tracker needs to know inside and out is the environment in which he is tracking. He needs to understand things like how snow keeps a track changes depending on whether it’s more wet or dry. He needs to know that spiders usually spin their webs late in the evening (if footprints are beneath an unbroken spider web, the tracker can assume that the target passed the point earlier in the day). He needs to know about the fauna and rocks in the area. He needs to know how the wind blows. He needs to know the usual temperature of embers a certain number of hours after a campfire has burned out.
He also needs to know how stuff ages in an environment. A skilled tracker can look at objects or signs in his surroundings and roughly gauge how long ago they were left there by his target. He knows how long it takes for paper to start to brown or a plastic bottle to become discolored after being discarded in a desert or forest. He should be able to look at a broken branch and, based on the color of the exposed wood, roughly guess when it was broken. He even knows what human feces look like 1, 2, 3 days after it was excreted by his target. Developing these mental models will come with practice and time, but one way to build them up before you need them is to make “aging stands.”
Aging Stands: The Tracker’s Experiment
aging stand for learning human tracking techniques illustration
Aging stands are described by expert combat tracker John Hurth as “science experiments” for trackers. You make a one-row grid on the ground out of branches and place different objects into its squares. Ideally, each square will be exposed partly to direct sunlight and partly to areas shaded and protected by trees. In week one, you put items that you want to test in the first square: footprints, paper, broken twigs, water bottles, and yes, even poop. You want to make sure you have duplicate samples in the shaded and unshaded part of the square.
Each day, visit your aging stand and take notes on how things have changed. How have the exposed branches changed color? Has the paper started fading? What’s happened to the poop? Have the impressions of the footprints changed over time?
The next week, move to the next square in the grid and put fresh samples of the same items in it. Compare them to the samples in the first week’s square. Take notes on differences. The next week put new samples in the third square. Compare them to the first and second week’s squares. Over time, you’ll get a rough idea of the aging progression undergone by both natural and manufactured items.
You’ll want to conduct aging stand experiments at different times of the year — spring, summer, fall, and winter — to learn how seasonal variations in humidity, temperature, and precipitation affect the aging process. It’s a laborious exercise, but it’s essential for creating the mental models you need to successfully track someone.

Human Psychology & Behavior

A tracker needs to not only know what’s going on in the environment in which he’s following a target, but what’s going on in the target’s head as well. He needs to develop mental models that deal with human behavior, and this means having a robust knowledge of human psychology and sociology. Knowing the mindset and cultural background of your target can help you know how he’ll act and lead you to where he is. The famous scout Frederick Russell Burnham had this to say about developing these kinds of mental models:

“It is imperative that a scout should know the history, tradition, religion, social customs, and superstitions of whatever country or people he is called on to work in or among. This is almost as necessary as to know the physical character of the country, its climate and products. Certain people will do certain things almost without fail. Certain other things, perfectly feasible, they will not do. There is no danger of knowing too much of the mental habits of an enemy. One should neither underestimate the enemy nor credit him with superhuman powers. Fear and courage are latent in every human being, though roused into activity by very diverse means.”

Besides general cultural and psychological mental models, you need to develop mental models for your particular target. Does he like to eat certain foods? Does he have any medical conditions? Does he smoke or bite his nails? Is he familiar with the outdoors or is he a city dweller? Does he have any particular fears or insecurities? Does he know anyone in the area?
Knowing this sort of information about your target will inform the way you conduct your search and interpret the evidence you find in the field. For example, if you know your target smokes, you’ll be on the lookout for cigarette butts. If he has diabetes, and you come across a puddle of urine that smells fruity, you’ll know you’re on the right track.

Scan and Search: Taking in Your Environment

Now that you’re working on increasing your situational awareness by becoming more observant and developing appropriate mental models (this is in fact an exercise that should never end), it’s time to start actually tracking.
When you’re out tracking, you’ll be engaging in two visual modes: scan and search.


When you scan the landscape, the goal is to get a general, big-picture overview of your surroundings. Keep an open focus. Don’t have any particular thing you’re looking for, as that will cause “target blindness” and result in your missing other pieces of evidence. Visually sweep the area for possible anomalies in your environment like tracks, litter, blood stains, etc.
Rather than scanning an area haphazardly, tracking experts David Diaz and V. L. McCann recommend dividing it horizontally into thirds:

“Imagine the territory in front of you is a two-dimensional canvas of a painted nature scene. The top boundary is the horizon; the bottom boundary is the ground in front of you. Now divide that canvas into three equal parts: the foreground, the mid-distance, and the far ground…
In order to ‘see’ everything in such a vast area, it must be scanned systematically. With a horizontal movement of your eyes, sweep the foreground from left to right, right to left, and left to right, moving your line of vision up just enough to slightly overlap the area above the last sweep.”

In this way, you methodically work your way up to the far ground and ensure that you don’t miss anything — distant or near — lying before you.


Diaz and McCann describe searching as “in-depth analysis of an area or object.” You can begin searching at any point in the scanning process once you’ve noticed an anomaly. Searching involves looking at the anomaly more closely and recording it in your mind or notebook for later analysis.
Just because you’ve searched one anomaly, doesn’t mean you should stop your scan of the area. Keep scanning and looking for more anomalies that you can more closely examine. As you continue your scan and search, take extra caution to avoid contaminating signs that you’ve uncovered. Leave litter where you found it, and don’t walk on footprints. You want to leave things in their original locations so you can put the pieces together and construct a story based on the evidence found.

Using Light for Scanning and Searching

man tracking humans using angle of sunlight to help illustration
As you scan and search, use the light available to you to better locate possible anomalies. For example, in the morning and evening, the sun casts long shadows over impressions in the ground, bringing them into sharper relief. To better see these shadows, position yourself so that the tracks you’re following are between you and the light source. This will require you to change your position in relation to the tracks. Be mindful of not contaminating them with your own prints as you do so.
Tracking at night is possible with the assistance of a light source like a flashlight. You’ll want to use a colored light like green or red to avoid disrupting your night vision. (Side note: red used to be the preferred nighttime light color, but many operators are switching to green because it allows them to see objects more clearly without reducing night vision that much.)
using night vision to track someone in the dark
When you’re searching at night, if you look directly at the object you’ve identified, you’ll likely stop seeing it. Looking directly at objects requires you to use the cone area of the retina, and that’s not very active during low-light settings. To make up for this deficiency, you’ll want to use what Diaz and McCann call “off-center vision.” Instead of looking directly at the object you’ve identified, you’ll want to look left, right, above, and below it, pausing at times to verify the properties of the object.

Know What To Look For

As you scan and search your environment, you want to be on the lookout for a few indicators that will help you track your target. Hurth suggests being on the lookout for the following visual indicators (I haven’t included all of them — check out John’s book for the complete, exhaustive list):
Ground Indicators (on the ground)
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  • Footprints
  • Vehicle tracks
  • Trampled grass
  • Boot and shoe scuffs
  • Turned over dead leaves
  • Disturbed grass or soil
  • Mud, soil, sand, and water transferred from footwear onto another medium

Track Traps: The Honey Pot of Ground Indicators
Hurth suggests being on the lookout for “track traps.” These are areas on the ground that do an excellent job of capturing your target’s tracks. He calls them “honey pots” because they leave so much information behind. Mud, sand, soft dirt, and snow are great examples of track traps. Bodies of water or oil spills can be track traps too. A target who steps in water or oil will likely leave footprints on the ground after stepping in the fluid.

Aerial Indicators (above your ankle)
broken spider web between two trees how to track a person illustration

  • Broken cobwebs
  • Detached or missing leaves
  • Broken branches that point in the direction of the target
  • Scratches or scuffs on trees
  • Cut or broken vegetation
  • Tall grass or vegetation pushed down into an unnatural position
  • Clothing fabric in branches
  • Hair in branches

Litter Indicators (objects discarded intentionally or unintentionally)

  • Cigarette butts
  • Candy and food wrappers
  • Spent ammo casings
  • Used medical supplies
  • Gum/tobacco
  • Clothing

Blood Indicators
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Your target might be injured and consequently leaving blood stains. The color of the blood stain can tell you a lot about the injury he or she has and how long it’s been since they left the blood stain there.

  • Dark red drops of blood. Indicates a venous wound. Non-life-threatening.
  • Bright red streaks of blood. Indicates a possible arterial wound. Life-threatening.
  • Pink, frothy blood. Indicates a possible wound to the lungs.
  • Light red, foul-smelling blood. Indicates a possible wound to the stomach.

Blood changes color over time as it’s exposed to the elements. Initially, blood spots will be brighter but will eventually fade to a brown or rust color.
Bodily Discharge Indicators
Vomit, poop, pee, snot — these bodily discharges may not be pleasant to contemplate, but they can not only help lead you in the direction of your target, but also paint a picture of his current condition.
Vomit and poop can tell you what sort of food your target’s been eating. If there’s a lot of liquid, clear vomit or you see diarrhea, there’s a chance he could be dehydrated.
If you find a urine spot that has a very fragrant ammonia smell, the target is likely dehydrated. If it has a fruity smell, there’s a chance he’s diabetic.

how to track a person man's urine on the ground illustration

Man peeing

how to track a person woman's urine on the ground illustration

Woman peeing

The relation of a urine stain’s position to a set of footprints can tell you if it came from a man or a woman. If the urine stain is in front of the footprints, probably a dude. If the stain is in the middle of the footprints or near the heels, likely a lady who popped a squat to do her business.
Audio and Olfactory Indicators
As a tracker, you can’t just rely on your sight to track down your target. Sounds — heavy breathing, talking, crying, movement in brush, coughing, etc. — can provide insights as to where your target is.
Smells can also provide useful clues. The smell of smoke can lead you to a campfire where the target is currently or has been recently. If the target’s been without a shower for a couple of days, he might also be giving off some pungent body odor.
Bottom line: as you scan and search with your eyes, don’t take your nose and ears offline. They can provide useful information you’d be missing using sight alone.

Identifying and Interpreting Footprints

While you should be scanning and searching for signs and indicators like blood, trampled grass, and broken cobwebs, footprints will be one of your primary ways of following and tracking your target.
A professional tracker is so adept at tracking footprints that he can identify individuals simply with a glance at the impressions in the ground. They can also immediately tell if the person is running, carrying a load, carrying another person, or even walking backwards.
The ability to create this dossier on a target simply by looking at their footprints requires some careful observation. Here’s what to look for when identifying and interpreting footprints.

Collect Information on a Footprint Data Card

A footprint data card is your police sketch of your target’s footprint. (John has a template in his book.) You’ll draw the pattern of the sole of his footwear on the card, determine if it’s a boot, shoe, or sandal, and make measurements that include the length of the print overall, the width of its heel (and its length if it’s a boot), and the width of the ball of the foot. You’ll also note if the impression reveals any manufacturer or sizing labels and if the toe is rounded, square, or pointed. You’ll want to record the time and location you located the print and the direction of travel as well.
Hurth recommends putting a nickname on top of the footprint data card based on its salient characteristics. So if you see a “Vibram” logo in a print, you can call that print “Vibram.”
If the target is barefoot, you’ll want to note whether he has a high arch, regular arch, or is flat-footed. You’ll want to measure the width of the ball of the foot and the heel. Make notes about their toes too — missing digits? Hammer toe?

Interpreting Footprints

determining meaning in footprints when tracking humans illustration
If you look closely enough at footprints, they can tell you a lot about what your target was doing when he left them.
For example, the spacing and depth of the impressions can tell you about the target’s gait — whether he was running or walking. Impressions that are far apart from each other and deeper in the toe or the heel indicate that the target was running; impressions that are shallower and closer together indicate walking.
If the gait is shorter and the impressions are deeper, the target was likely carrying a load like a backpack. If you see a short gait and deep impressions, along with intermittent additions of another set of prints next to the target’s, you can deduce that he was carrying a person (and occasionally putting them down for breaks).
A set of impressions that have a circular indention to the side indicates that the target is using a walking cane or stick.
If one foot leaves a deeper impression than the other, it likely means the target is favoring that leg and that the other leg is injured.
So as you look at footprints, don’t just stop with the observation phase. Try to put together a story of what your target was doing, as this can help you develop a theory as to what he’s likely to do next.

Determining the Number of People in a Group by Footprints

determining number of people in a group with footprints illustration
Sometimes counting the number of people in a target group is easy because there are distinct sets of footprints that you can count. But often the footprints overlap and mix together. How do you get a count then?
One way is to use the Box Method to get an estimate. Draw a line behind one print and then measure 48-60 inches forward and draw another line. Count all full and partial prints between those two lines (round up if you end on an odd number). Divide the total print count by two, and you’ll have a rough estimate of the number of people in your target group.

Practice Reading Footprints

Reading and interpreting footprints is a skill that can be acquired through practice. A great way to do that is to create an artificial track trap out of sand and then have your friends walk through it in different ways while you’re not looking. They can run, limp on one leg, carry each other, walk and then kneel, drag a body, pretend to fight each other, etc.
After they’ve left their tracks, go to the track trap and interpret what they did by looking at the tracks. After you’ve recreated the scenario your friends acted out, use a rake to clear the track trap’s slate and have your buds walk through it again.
I did this exercise with Hurth at the ITS Tactical Muster and had a blast. It’s pretty cool to be able to determine whether a fight went on or if someone was carrying a rifle simply by looking at footprints.

Putting It All Together: Creating a Story of Your Target

Tracking requires you to be hyper observant of your environment while simultaneously orienting your observations to the mental models in your head. This back and forth observing and orienting allows you to create a story of what’s going on with your target even though you weren’t there to observe them firsthand. By creating this story about your target as you collect evidence, you’ll be in a better position to figure out where they’re headed so you can find them.

All About Guns Other Stuff Related Topics

The Other Marine Corp

The Royal Marine Corps

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The Royals or Bootnecks* as they are nicknamed over in the United Kingdom. Are some really tough and interesting Folks that you really want on your side in a fight.
Image result for bootneck cartoon
I myself got lucky again. As I was able to go and see their Regimental Museum over in the UK. It’s a interesting place by the way.
But enough of that. These Folks have a really good Reputation. As they run one of the hardest selection & training programs in the world. With a huge wash out rate.

Attachments area
Preview YouTube video Potential Royal Marines Course – 2017

Preview YouTube video Royal Marines Recruit Training

Right now they are using the


The SA80 A2 ACOG is the standard Royal Marine weapon, and is capable of firing single rounds or burst. It enables Marines to deploy quick and accurate fire at short range; and accurate fire at longer ranges.
Image result for SA80 A2 ACOG
(It’s a Bullpup design that fires the standard 5.56mm NATO round) Image result for SA80 A2 ACOG
For their side arm they are using a 9mm Glock 17.

 Image result for 9mm Glock 17

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* Another nickname, as if you are stupid enough to fight them. You will probably find yourself on the ground with a boot on your neck right quick!Related image
Image result for bootneck cartoonHere is some more information about these Folks. Thanks for reading this!

Royal Marines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Corps of Royal Marines

Founded 1664
Country  United Kingdom[nb 1]
Allegiance Elizabeth II
Branch  Her Majesty’s Naval Service
Type Marine commando
Role Expeditionary & amphibious warfare
Size 7,760 Royal Marines
750 Royal Marines Reserve
Naval Staff Offices WhitehallLondonEngland
Nickname(s) “Royals”
“The Commandos”
Motto(s) “Per Mare, Per Terram” (Latin)
“By Sea, By Land”
Colours Blue
March Quick: “A Life on the Ocean Wave
Slow: “Preobrajensky”
Captain General Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
First Sea Lord Sir Philip Jones
Commandant General Major General Robert Magowan
Non‑ceremonial flag
Flag of the Royal Marines.png

The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the United Kingdom‘s amphibious light infantry force, forming part of the Naval Service, along with the Royal Navy.[1] The Royal Marines were formed in 1755 as the Royal Navy’s infantry troops. However, the marines can trace their origins back to the formation of the English Army‘s “Duke of York and Albany’s maritime regiment of Foot” at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company on 28 October 1664.[2]
As a highly specialised and adaptable light infantry force, the Royal Marines are trained for rapid deployment worldwide and capable of dealing with a wide range of threats. The Royal Marines are organised into a light infantry brigade (3 Commando Brigade) and a number of separate units, including 1 Assault Group Royal Marines, 43 Commando Royal Marines formerly Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines (previously the Comacchio Group), and a company strength commitment to the Special Forces Support Group. The Corps operates in all environments and climates, though particular expertise and training is spent on amphibious warfarearctic warfaremountain warfareexpeditionary warfare, and its commitment to the UK’s Rapid Reaction Force.
Throughout its history, the Royal Marines have seen action in a number of major wars often fighting beside the British Army – including the Seven Years’ War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean WarWorld War I and World War II. In recent times the Corps has been largely deployed in expeditionary warfare roles such as the Falklands War, the Gulf War, the Bosnian War, the Kosovo War, the Sierra Leone Civil War, the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Royal Marines have close international ties with allied marine forces, particularly the United States Marine Corps and the Netherlands Marine Corps (Dutch: Korps Mariniers).[3][4] Today, the Royal Marines are an elite fighting force within the British Armed forces, having undergone many substantial changes over time.[5]


The Royal Marines can trace its origins back as far as 28 October 1664 when at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company “the Duke of York and Albany’s maritime regiment of foot” was first formed.[2]

Early British Empire[edit]

On 5 April 1755, His Majesty’s Marine Forces, fifty Companies in three Divisions, headquartered at ChathamPortsmouth, and Plymouth, were formed by Order of Council under Admiralty control.[2] Initially all field officers were Royal Navy officers as the Royal Navy felt that the ranks of Marine field officers were largely honorary. This meant that the furthest a Marine officer could advance was to lieutenant colonel. It was not until 1771 that the first Marine was promoted to colonel. This attitude persisted well into the 1800s. During the rest of the 18th century, they served in numerous landings all over the world, the most famous being the landing at Bellisle on the Brittany coast in 1761.[2] They also served in the American War of Independence, notably in the Battle of Bunker Hill led by Major John Pitcairn.[6]

Major General John Tupper His Majesty’s Marine Forces.

In 1788 a detachment of four companies of marines, under Major Robert Ross, accompanied the First Fleet to protect a new colony at Botany Bay (New South Wales). Due to an error the Fleet left Portsmouth without its main supply of ammunition, and were not resupplied until the Fleet docked in Rio de Janeiro midway through the voyage.[7] One scholar has claimed that the Marines deliberately spread smallpox among Australia’s indigenous population in order to reduce its military effectiveness, but this is not corroborated by contemporaneous records of the settlement and most researchers attribute the indigenous smallpox outbreak to other causes.[8][9]

Private of Marines, 1815.

In 1802, largely at the instigation of Admiral the Earl St. Vincent, they were titled the Royal Marines by King George III. The Royal Marines Artillery (RMA) was formed as a separate unit in 1804 to man the artillery in bomb ketches. These had been manned by the Army’s Royal Regiment of Artillery, but a lawsuit by a Royal Artillery officer resulted in a court decision that Army officers were not subject to Naval orders. As RMA uniforms were the blue of the Royal Regiment of Artillery they were nicknamed the “Blue Marines” and the Infantry element, who wore the scarlet uniforms of the British infantry, became known as the “Red Marines”, often given the semi-derogatory nickname “Lobsters” by sailors.[10] A fourth division of the Royal Marines, headquartered at Woolwich, was formed in 1805.[11]
During the Napoleonic Wars the Royal Marines participated in every notable naval battle on board the Royal Navy’s ships and also took part in multiple amphibious actions. Marines had a dual function aboard ships of the Royal Navy in this period; routinely, they ensured the security of the ship’s officers and supported their maintenance of discipline in the ship’s crew, and in battle, they engaged the enemy’s crews, whether firing from positions on their own ship, or fighting in boarding actions.[12] In the Caribbean theatre volunteers from freed French slaves on Marie-Galante were used to form Sir Alexander Cochrane‘s first Corps of Colonial Marines. These men bolstered the ranks, helping the British to hold the island until reinforcements arrived. This practice was repeated during the War of 1812, where escaped American slaves were formed into Cochrane‘s second Corps of Colonial Marines. These men were commanded by Royal Marines officers and fought alongside their regular Royal Marines counterparts at the Battle of Bladensburg.[13] Throughout the war Royal Marines units raided up and down the east coast of America including up the Penobscot River and in the Chesapeake Bay. They fought in the Battle of New Orleans and later helped capture Fort Bowyer in Mobile Bay in what was the last action of the war.[14]

Royal Marines parade in the streets of Chania in spring 1897, following British occupation.

In 1855 the Infantry forces were renamed the Royal Marines Light Infantry (RMLI). During the Crimean War in 1854 and 1855, three Royal Marines earned the Victoria Cross, two in the Crimea and one in the Baltic.[15] In 1862 the name was slightly altered to Royal Marine Light Infantry. The Royal Navy did not fight any other ships after 1850 and became interested in landings by Naval Brigades. In these Naval Brigades, the function of the Royal Marines was to land first and act as skimishers ahead of the sailor Infantry and Artillery. This skirmishing was the traditional function of Light Infantry.[16] For most of their history, British Marines had been organised as fusiliers. In the rest of the 19th Century the Royal Marines served in many landings especially in the First and Second Opium Wars (1839–1842 and 1856–1860) against the Chinese. These were all successful except for the landing at the Mouth of the Peiho in 1859, where Admiral Sir James Hopeordered a landing across extensive mud flats.[17]
The Royal Marines also played a prominent role in the Boxer Rebellion in China (1900), where a Royal Marine earned a Victoria Cross.[15]
Pursuing a career in the Marines had been considered social suicide through much of the 18th and 19th centuries since Marine officers had a lower standing than their counterparts in the Royal Navy. An effort was made in 1907 through the common entry or “Selborne Scheme” to reduce the professional differences between RN and RM officers through a system of common entry that provided for an initial period of service where both groups performed the same roles and underwent the same training.[18]

World wars[edit]

First World War[edit]

During the First World War, in addition to their usual stations aboard ship, Royal Marines were part of the Royal Naval Division which landed in Belgium in 1914 to help defend Antwerp and later took part in the amphibious landing at Gallipoliin 1915. It also served on the Western Front. The Division’s first two commanders were Royal Marine Artillery Generals. Other Royal Marines acted as landing parties in the Naval campaign against the Turkish fortifications in the Dardanelles before the Gallipoli landing. They were sent ashore to assess damage to Turkish fortifications after bombardment by British and French ships and, if necessary, to complete their destruction. The Royal Marines were the last to leave Gallipoli, replacing both British and French troops in a neatly planned and executed withdrawal from the beaches.[19]
The Royal Marines also took part in the Zeebrugge Raid in 1918. Five Royal Marines earned the Victoria Cross in the First World War, two at Zeebrugge, one at Gallipoli, one at Jutland and one on the Western Front.[15]

Between the wars[edit]

After the war Royal Marines took part in the allied intervention in Russia. In 1919, the 6th Battalion RMLI mutinied and was disbanded at Murmansk. The Royal Marine Artillery (RMA) and Royal Marine Light Infantry (RMLI) were amalgamated on 22 June 1923.[20] Post-war demobilisation had seen the Royal Marines reduced from 55,000 (1918) to 15,000 in 1922 and there was Treasury pressure for a further reduction to 6,000 or even the entire disbandment of the Corps. As a compromise an establishment of 9,500 was settled upon but this meant that two separate branches could no longer be maintained. The abandonment of the Marine’s artillery role meant that the Corps would subsequently have to rely on Royal Artillery support when ashore, that the title of Royal Marines would apply to the entire Corps and that only a few specialists would now receive gunnery training. As a form of consolation the dark blue and red uniform of the Royal Marine Artillery now became the full dress of the entire Corps. Royal Marine officers and SNCO’s however continue to wear the historic scarlet in mess dress to the present day. The ranks of private, used by the RMLI, and gunner, used by the RMA, were abolished and replaced by the rank of Marine.[21]

Second World War[edit]

British Commandos in action during Operation Archery, Norway.

During the Second World War, a small party of Royal Marines were first ashore at Namsos in April 1940, seizing the approaches to the Norwegian town preparatory to a landing by the British Army two days later. The Royal Marines formed the Royal Marine Division as an amphibiously trained division, parts of which served at Dakar and in the capture of Madagascar. After the assault on the French naval base at Antsirane in Madagascar was held up, fifty Sea Service Royal Marines from HMS Ramilles commanded by Captain Martin Price were landed on the quay of the base by the British destroyer HMS Anthony after it ran the gauntlet of French shore batteries defending Diego Suarez Bay. They then captured two of the batteries, which led to a quick surrender by the French.[22]
In addition the Royal Marines formed Mobile Naval Base Defence Organisations (MNBDOs) similar to the United States Marine Corps Defense Battalions. One of these took part in the defence of Crete. Royal Marines also served in Malaya and in Singapore, where due to losses they were joined with remnants of the 2nd Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the “Plymouth Argylls”. The Royal Marines formed one Commando (A Commando) which served at Dieppe. One month after Dieppe, most of the 11th Royal Marine Battalion was killed or captured in an ill staged amphibious landing at Tobruk in Operation Agreement. Again, the Marines were involved with the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, this time the 1st Battalion. In 1942 the Infantry Battalions of the Royal Marine Division were re-organised as Commandos, joining the British Army Commandos. The Division command structure became a Special Service Brigade command. The support troops became landing craft crew and saw extensive action on D-Day in June 1944.[23]

Men of No 4 (Army) Commandoengaged in house to house fighting with the Germans at Riva Bella, near Ouistreham.

A total of four Special Service Brigades (later Commando brigade) were raised during the war, and Royal Marines were represented in all of them. A total of nine RM Commandos (Battalions) were raised during the war, numbered from 40 to 48. 1 Commando Brigade had just one RM Battalion, No 45 Commando2 Commando Brigade had two RM battalions, Nos 40 and 43 Commandos. 3 Commando Brigade also had two, Nos 42 and 44 Commandos. 4 Commando Brigade was entirely Royal Marine after March 1944, comprising Nos 414647and 48 Commandos. 1 Commando Brigade took part in first in the Tunisia Campaign and then assaults on Sicily and Normandy, campaigns in the Rhineland and crossing the Rhine. 2 Commando Brigade was involved in the Salerno landingsAnzioComacchio, and operations in the Argenta Gap. 3 Commando Brigade served in Sicily and Burma. 4 Commando Brigade served in the Battle of Normandy and in the Battle of the Scheldt on the island of Walcherenduring the clearing of Antwerp.[24]

Royal Marine Commandos attached to 3rd Division move inland from Sword Beach on the Normandy coast, 6 June 1944.

In January 1945, two further RM Brigades were formed, 116th Brigade and 117th Brigade. Both were conventional Infantry, rather than in the Commando role. 116th Brigade saw some action in the Netherlands, but 117th Brigade was hardly used operationally. In addition one Landing Craft Assault (LCA) unit was stationed in Australia late in the war as a training unit. In 1946 the Army Commandos were disbanded, leaving the Royal Marines to continue the Commando role (with supporting Army elements). A number of Royal Marines served as pilots during the Second World War. It was a Royal Marines officer who led the attack by a formation of Blackburn Skuas that sank the Königsberg. Eighteen Royal Marines commanded Fleet Air Arm squadrons during the course of the war, and with the formation of the British Pacific Fleet were well-represented in the final drive on Japan. Captains and Majors generally commanded squadrons, whilst in one case Lt. Colonel R.C. Hay on HMS Indefatigable was Air Group Co-ordinator from HMS Victorious of the entire British Pacific Fleet.[25]
Throughout the war Royal Marines continued in their traditional role of providing ships detachments and manning a proportion of the guns on Cruisers and Capital Ships. They also provided the crew for the UK’s Minor Landing craft and the Royal Marines Armoured Support Group manned Centaur IV tanks on D Day one of these is still on display at Pegasus Bridge.[26]
Only one Marine (Corporal Thomas Peck Hunter of 43 Commando) was awarded the Victoria Cross in the Second World War for action at Lake Comacchio in Italy. Hunter was the most recent RM Commando to be awarded the medal.[15] The Royal Marines Boom Patrol Detachment under Blondie Haslar carried out Operation Frankton and provided the basis for the post-war continuation of the SBS.[27]

Post-colonial era[edit]

The Corps underwent a notable change after 1945 however, when the Royal Marines took on the main responsibility for the role and training of the British Commandos. The Royal Marines have an illustrious history, and since their creation in 1942 Royal Marines Commandos have engaged on active operations across the globe, every year, except 1968.[28]Notably they were the first ever military unit to perform an air assault insertion by helicopter, during the Suez Crisis in 1956.[29] They were also part of the land element during the 1982 Falklands War.[30]

Cold War[edit]

Royal Marines during an exercise in Scotland.

During the Cold War the Royal Marines were earmarked to reinforce NATO‘s northernmost command Allied Forces North Norway. Therefore 3 Commando Brigade began to train annually in Northern Norway and had large stores of vehicles and supplies pre-positioned there. At the end of the Cold War in 1989 the structure of the Royal Marines was as follows:[31]

Note: “(V)” denotes British Army reserve units.



Royal Marines in Sangin, Afghanistan, 2010

The Royal Marines are part of the Naval Service and under the full command of Fleet Commander. The rank structure of the corps is similar to that of the British Army with officers and other ranks recruited and initially trained separately from other naval personnel. Since 2017 women have been able to serve in all roles in the Royal Marines. On average, 1,200 recruits and 2,000 potential recruits, and 400 potential officers attend training courses and acquaint courses at CTCRM every year.
At its height in 1944 during the Second World War, more than 70,000 people served in the Royal Marines. Following the Allied victory the Royal Marines were quickly reduced to a post-war strength of 13,000. When National Service finally came to an end in 1960, the Marines were again reduced, but this time to an all Commando-trained force of 9,000 personnel.[32] As of October 2014 the Royal Marines had a strength of 7,760 Regular[33] and 750 Royal Marines Reserve, giving a combined component strength of around 8,510 personnel. The Royal Marines are the only European marine force capable of conducting amphibious operations at brigade level.[34]


Infantry The basic infantry weapon of the Royal Marines is the L85A2 assault rifle,[35] sometimes fitted with the L123A3underslung grenade launcher.[36] Support fire is provided by the L110A1 light machine gun,[36] the L7A2 General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG)[37] and the L111A1 heavy machine gun[38] (which is often mounted on an armoured vehicle); indirect fire by the L16A2 81mm mortar.[38] Sniper rifles used include the L115A3,[37] produced by Accuracy International. More recently the L129A1 has come into service as the designated marksman rifle.[36] Other weapons include the Javelin Anti-Tank missile,[39] the L107A1 pistol,[35] the L131A1 pistol[35] and the Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife.
Armour The Royal Marines maintain no heavy armoured units, instead, they operate a fleet of lightly armoured and highly mobile vehicles intended for amphibious landings or rapid deployment. The primary armoured fighting vehicle operated by the Armoured Support Group is the BvS 10 Viking All Terrain Armoured Vehicle.[40] Other, lighter vehicles include the Land Rover Wolf Armoured Patrol Vehicle, the Jackal (MWMIK) Armoured Vehicle and the Pinzgauer High Mobility All Terrain Vehicle.[41]
Artillery Field artillery support is provided by 29th Commando Regiment Royal Artillery of the British Army using the L118 Light Gun, a 105 mm towed howitzer. The regiment is Commando-trained.
Aviation The Commando Helicopter Force of the Fleet Air Arm provides transport helicopters in support of the Royal Marines. It currently uses both Merlin HC4/4A medium-lift transport and Wildcat AH1 attack helicopters to provide direct aviation support for the Corps. In addition, the Royal Air Force provides Chinook heavy-lift and Puma HC2 medium-lift transport helicopters.
Vessels The Royal Marines operate a varied fleet of military watercraft designed to transport troops and material from ship to shore or conduct river or estuary patrols. These include the 2000TDX Landing Craft Air Cushion, the Mk10 Landing Craft Utility, the Mk5 Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel and the SDV Mk8 Mod 1 Swimmer Delivery Vehicle for special forces. Other smaller amphibious craft such as the Offshore Raiding CraftRigid Raider and Inflatable Raiding Craft are in service in much greater numbers.

Formation and structure[edit]

The overall head of the Royal Marines is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, in her role as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. The ceremonial head of the Royal Marines is the Captain General Royal Marines (equivalent to the Colonel-in-Chief of a British Army regiment). The current Captain-General is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Full Command of the Royal Marines is vested in the Fleet Commander (FLTCDR)[42] with the Commandant General Royal Marines, a major-general, embedded within the Navy Command Headquarters (NCHQ) as Commander UK Amphibious Force (COMUKAMPHIBFOR).
The operational capability of the corps comprises a number of battalion-plus sized units, of which five are designated as “commandos”:

Operational structure of the Royal Marines.

Each Commando Unit will rotate through one of three roles every six months.

  • Lead Commando – This unit will be the first unit called upon in case of short-notice operations anywhere around the world.
  • Force Generating – Training (Force Generating) to assume the role of Lead Commando
  • Standing task – general duties unit

With the exception of the 43 Commando Fleet Protection Group and Commando Logistic Regiment, which are each commanded by a full colonel, each of these units is commanded by a lieutenant-colonel of the Royal Marines, who may have sub-specialised in a number of ways throughout his career.[44]

3 Commando Brigade[edit]

Main article: 3 Commando Brigade

Insignia of 3 Commando

Operational command of the five commandos and the Commando Logistics Regiment is delegated to 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines, of which they are a part. Based at Stonehouse Barracks, the brigade exercises control as directed by either CINCFLEET or the Permanent Joint Headquarters. As the main combat formation of the Royal Marines, the brigade has its own organic capability to it in the field, 30 Commando Information Exploitation Group, a battalion sized formation providing information operations capabilities, life support and security for the Brigade Headquarters.
43 Commando Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines, responsible for the security of the United Kingdom’s nuclear deterrent and other security-related duties was originally outside the brigade however from April 2012 it moved into it.[45] It also provides specialist boarding parties and snipers for the Royal Navy worldwide, for roles such as embargo enforcement, counter-narcotics, counter-piracy and counter-insurgency activities of the Royal Navy. It is the largest unit in the brigade, at 790 strong,[45] with a different structure from the other Commandos.

Independent elements[edit]

The independent elements of the Royal Marines are:[46]

A Royal Marines team boards US Navy destroyer USS O’Bannon.

  • Commando Training Centre: This is the training unit for the entire corps, and consists of three separate sections:
    • Commando Training Wing: This is the initial basic commando training section for new recruits to the Royal Marines, and the UK Forces All Arms Commando Course.
    • Specialist Wing: This provides specialist training in the various trades which Marines may elect to join once qualified and experienced in a Rifle Company.
    • Command Wing: This provides command training for both officers and NCOs of the Royal Marines.
  • 1 Assault Group Royal Marines: Provides training in the use of landing craftand boats, and also serves as a parent unit for the three assault squadrons permanently embarked on the Royal Navy‘s amphibious ships.
  • Special Boat Service (SBS) are naval special forces and under operational command of Director Special Forces, UK Special Forces Group. It is commanded by a lieutenant colonel qualified as a swimmer canoeist. SBS responsibilities include water-borne operations, maritime counter-terrorism and other special forces tasks.
  • Royal Marines Band Service provides regular bands for the Royal Navy and provides expertise to train RN Volunteer Bands. Musicians have an important secondary role as medics and field hospital orderlies. Personnel may not be commando trained, wearing a dark blue beret instead of green; until 2017, the band service was the only branch of the Royal Marines to admit women.

Structure of a commando[edit]

Main article: Commando 21
The Commando Flash and dagger worn on the sleeve

The Commando Flash and dagger worn on the sleeve

The three commando units are each organised into six companies, further organised into platoon-sized troops, as follows:[47]
Command company

  • Main HQ
  • Tactical HQ
  • Reconnaissance Troop with a sniper section
  • Mortar Troop
  • Anti-Tank (AT) Troop
  • Medium Machine Gun Troop

2X Close Combat Companies

  • Company Headquarters
  • 3X Close Combat Troops

2X Stand Off Companies

  • Company Headquarters
  • Heavy Machine Gun (HMG) Troop
  • AT Troop
  • Close Combat Troop.

Logistic Company

  • A Echelon 1
  • A Echelon 2
  • FRT (Forward Repair Team)
  • RAP (Regimental Aid Post)
  • B Echelon

In general a rifle company Marine will be a member of a four-man fire team, the building block of commando operations. A Royal Marine works with his team in the field and shares accommodation if living in barracks. This structure is a recent development, formerly Commandos were structured similarly to British Army light Infantry Battalions.[48] During the restructuring of the United Kingdom’s military services the Corps evolved from a Cold War focus on NATO’s Northern Flank towards a more expeditionary posture.

Amphibious Task Group[edit]

A Royal Marine RIB ‘Underslinging’, from an RAF Chinook as a method of quick extraction and insertion of waterborne personnel

Formerly known as the Amphibious Ready Group, the Amphibious Task Group (or ATG) is a mobile, balanced amphibious warfare force, based on a Commando Group and its supporting assets, that can be kept at high readiness to deploy into an area of operations. The ATG is normally based around specialist amphibious ships, most notably HMS Ocean, the largest ship in the British fleet. Ocean was designed and built to accommodate an embarked commando and its associated stores and equipment. The strategy of the ATG is to wait “beyond the horizon” and then deploy swiftly as directed by HM Government. The whole amphibious force is intended to be self-sustaining and capable of operating without host-nation support. The concept was successfully tested in operations in Sierra Leone.[49]

Commando Helicopter Force[edit]

The Commando Helicopter Force (CHF) forms part of the Fleet Air Arm. It comprises three helicopter squadrons and is commanded by the Joint Helicopter Command.[50] It consists of both Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Marines personnel. RN personnel need not be commando trained. The CHF is neither under the permanent control of 3 Commando Brigade nor that of the Commandant General Royal Marines, but rather is allocated to support Royal Marines units as required. It uses both Merlin HC4/4A medium-lift and Wildcat AH1 light transport/reconnaissance helicopters to provide aviation support for the Royal Marines.

Commando Forces 2030 & Maritime Operations Commando[edit]

On 11 April 2017 the First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Philip Jones, announced[51] that the Royal Marines were to be restructured. As part of this 42 Commando is to be re-roled into a specialist Maritime Operations Commando. This is in turn part of the Commando Forces 2030 strategy.[52]

Selection and training[edit]

A Royal Marine stands beside a tree to sight in his weapon during a training exercise.

Royal Marines snipers displaying their L115A1 rifles

Royal Marines are required to undergo one of the longest and most physically demanding specialist infantry training regimes in the world. Recruit training lasts for 32 weeks for Marines and 60 weeks for officers. Potential recruits must be male and aged 16 to 32 (18 to 25 for Commissioned Officers);[53] however by the end of 2018 women will be permitted to apply after the ban on women in Ground Close Combat roles was lifted in July 2016.[54] and they must first undertake a series of interviews, medical tests, an eye/sight test, psychometric tests and a PJFT (Pre-joining fitness test).[55] Once a potential recruit passes these, enlisted recruits undertake a 3-day selection course called PRMC (Potential Royal Marine Course) and potential officers undertake POC (Potential Officer Course) – both take place at the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines (CTCRM) in Lympstone, Devon. Officers must also take the Admiralty Interview Board(AIB).[56] Upon passing the 3-day course, recruits then start basic recruit training (RT) at CTCRM.[55] Unlike in many countries, enlisted Marines and officer Marines often train together for the first 32 weeks. A large proportion of training is carried out on Dartmoor‘s inhospitable terrain and Woodbury Common woodland. The culmination of their training ends with their infamous commando courses which they initially pre-train for. The commando courses are a series of physical and mental endurance tests that highlight their military professionalism.
Throughout the recruit training, Royal Marines learn and develop many military skills such as weapons handling, marksmanship and proficiency with different firearms, personal administration, marching and parade ground skills, map reading and navigation, physical fitness and mental toughness development, fieldcraft skills such as camouflage and stalking, basic survival techniques, patrolling and sentry duty development, unarmed and armed close quarters combat(CQC), first aid, underwater escape, chemical biological radiological nuclear (CBRN) training, military communications and signals, teamwork skills, amphibious landings training, and leadership skills for officers to name a few.
The best recruit to finish training is awarded the Kings Badge. King George V directed that his Royal Cypher, surrounded by a laurel wreath, would be known as the King’s Badge, and would be awarded to the best all round recruit in the King’s Squad, provided that he was worthy of the honour. The badge was to be carried on the left shoulder, and worn in every rank. The King’s Badge is not awarded to every squad, and is only presented if a recruit measures up to the very exacting standards required.[57]
Throughout his career, a Marine can specialise in a number of different roles upon completion of their respective courses after spending 1–2 years as a general duties (GD) Marine. Examples of some specialisations and different courses includes the mountain leader (ML), physical training instructor (PTI), Assault Engineer (AE), military police (MP), sniper course, medical assistant, pilot, reconnaissance operator (RO), drill instructor, driver, clerk, chef, signaller, combat intelligence, armourer, and heavy weapons training. Royal Marines can also apply for swimmer canoeist/Special Boat Service selection (SBS) or any other branch of the UKSF.[58] All Royal Marines will also conduct training exercises on differing military skills on a regular basis including development in mountain, arctic, jungle, amphibious and desert warfare. They can also be involved in exchange training programs with other countries forces – particularly the United States Marine Corps[3] and the Netherlands Marine Corps/Korps Mariniers.[4]

Customs and traditions[edit]

The Royal Marines have a proud history and unique traditions. With the exceptions of “Gibraltar” and the laurel wreath for the Battle of Belle Island, their colours (flags) do not carry battle honours in the manner of the regiments of the British Army or of the US Marine Corps, but rather the “globe itself” as a symbol of the Corps.[59]

Royal Marine Beret Badge

Memorial for H Barley of the Royal Marine Engineers

The heraldic crest of the Royal Marines commemorates the history of the Corps. The Lion and Crown denotes a Royal regiment. King George III conferred this honour in 1802 “in consideration of the very meritorious services of the Marines in the late war.” The “Great Globe itself” was chosen in 1827 by King George IV in place of Battle honours to recognise the Marines’ service and successes in multiple engagements in every quarter of the world.[10] The laurels are believed to honour the gallantry they displayed during the investment and capture of Belle Isle, off Lorient, in April–June 1761. The word Gibraltar refers to the Capture of Gibraltar by a force of Anglo-Dutch Marines in 1704 and the subsequent defence of the strategic fortress throughout a nine-month siege against a numerically superior Franco-Spanish force.[10] Their determination and valour throughout the siege led to a contemporary report published in The Triumphs of Her Majesty’s Arms in 1707 to announce:

Encouraged by the Prince of Hesse, the garrison did more than could humanly be expected, and the English Marines gained an immortal glory

— referred to by Paul Harris Nicolas, Historical record of the Royal marine forces[60]

There are no other battle honours displayed on the colours of the four battalion-sized units of the current Corps. The Latin motto “Per Mare Per Terram” translates into English as “By Sea By Land”. Believed to have been first used in 1775 this motto describes the Royal Marines ability in fighting both afloat on-board ships of the Royal Navy, as well as ashore in their many land engagements. The fouled anchor, incorporated into the emblem in 1747, is the badge of the Lord High Admiral and shows that the Corps is part of the Naval Service.[59]
The regimental quick march of the Corps is “A Life on the Ocean Wave“, while the slow march is the march of the Preobrazhensky Regiment, awarded to the Corps by Admiral of the Fleet Earl Mountbatten of Burma on the occasion of the Corps’s tercentenary in 1964. Lord Mountbatten was Life Colonel Commandant of the Royal Marines until his murder by the IRA in 1979.[61]

Royal Marines on Parade in the City of London marking the 350th anniversary of the Corps in 2014

The Royal Marines are allowed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London to march through the City as a regiment in full array. This dates to the charter of Charles IIthat allowed recruiting parties of the Admiral’s Regiment of 1664 to enter the City with drums beating and colours flying.[62]


The modern Royal Marines retain a number of distinctive uniform items. These include the green “Lovat” service dress worn with the green beret, the dark blue parade dress worn with either the white Wolseley Pattern Helmet (commonly referred to as “pith helmet“) or white and red peaked cap, the scarlet and blue mess dress for officers and senior non-commissioned officers and the white hot-weather uniform of the Band Service.[63]
For historical information regarding Marine uniforms, see Uniforms of the Royal Marines.

Ranks and insignia[edit]

See also: Royal Marines officer ranks and Royal Marines other ranks

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
United KingdomUnited Kingdom
(Royal Marines)

No equivalent General Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Second Lieutenant No equivalent
General Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Officer Cadet
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
United Kingdom United Kingdom
(Royal Marines)

British Royal Marines OR-9.svg British Royal Marines OR-8.svg British Royal Marines OR-7.svg British Royal Marines OR-6.svg No equivalent British Royal Marines OR-4.svg British Royal Marines OR-3.svg No equivalent No insignia
Warrant Officer Class 1 Warrant Officer Class 2 Colour Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance Corporal Marine

Order of precedence[edit]

As the descendant of the old marine regiments of the British Army, the Royal Marines used to have a position in the order of precedence of the infantry; this was after the 49th Regiment of Foot, the final lineal descendant of which was the Royal Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment (RGBW). Therefore, the Royal Marines would have paraded after the RGBW. This is because the 49th Foot was the last regiment raised prior to the formation of the Corps of Marines as part of the Royal Navy in 1755. In 2007, the RGBW was amalgamated into a large regiment – this new regiment is placed last in the order of precedence, as it is a regiment of rifles. However, as a result of new Army amalgamations the Royal Marines have now been removed from the infantry order of precedence and now always take post, as a constituent part of the Royal Navy (the Senior Service), at the head of the parade alongside the Navy, or alone if the Navy are not represented. Thus, if only the infantry is represented, the Royal Marines would parade before the Grenadier Guards, the senior infantry regiment of the Army.

Preceded by
As part of Naval Service, assumes precedence before all Army units
British Army order of precedence Succeeded by
British Army

Associations with other regiments and marines corps[edit]

Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
Early connections date from Balaclava in the Crimean War and Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny, but the main association stems from World War II. In July 1940, after the fall of Dunkirk, the 5th Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders served with the Royal Marine Brigade for over a year. When the battleships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse were sunk in December 1941, the Royal Marines survivors joined up with the remnants of the 2nd Battalion, in the defence of Singapore. They formed what became known as ‘The Plymouth Argylls’, after the association football team, since both ships were Plymouth manned. Most of the Highlanders and Marines who survived the bitter fighting were taken prisoner by the Japanese. The Royal Marines inter-unit rugby football trophy is the ‘Argyll Bowl’, presented to the Corps by the Regiment in 1941.[2]
Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment
The fore-bearer regiments of the Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment of Foot was initially raised as amphibious troops. They served as Marines for a period. To this day one officer from the Royal Marines serves with the PWRR and Vice Versa. Also the Royal Marine Lanyard is worn by all ranks in Service Dress and Number 2 Dress uniform and barrack dress of PWRR.[64]
Barbados Defence Force
Close links have existed between the Royal Marines and the Barbados Defence Force since 1985 when a bond was established following a series of cross-training exercises in the Caribbean. The Alliance was approved by HM the Queen in 1992.[2]
Netherlands Marine Corps
The Royal Marines have close links with the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps, with whom they conduct NATO exercises throughout the year. Formed during the Anglo-Dutch Wars in 1665, the Dutch Marines distinguished themselves in raids on the English coast, where it is likely they met their future counterparts. Units of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps work in close co-operation with 3 Commando Brigade of the Royal Marines. Operational units of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps are fully integrated into this brigade. This integration is known as the United Kingdom-Netherlands Landing Force and is a component of the United Kingdom-Netherlands Amphibious Force as a key strike force during the Cold War to strengthen the Nordic area.[65]
9th Light Armoured Marine Brigade
The 9eme BIMa (9th Marine Infantry Brigade) is a Marine infantry brigade which is one of the two designated amphibious brigades in France. It is unique in being the only ‘all Marine’ Brigade in the French Army; the other amphibious brigade, 6eme Light Armoured Brigade, is composed of a mix of cap badges. 9 BIMa is also a light armoured brigade, formed of two Marine infantry regiments (2 and 3 Regiments d’Infanterie de Marine- 2/3 RIMa) and a tank battalion.[66]

See also[edit]

All About Guns Allies

The .35 Whelen Story by Layne Simpson


The origin of the .35 Whelen has long been debated despite the fact that in two of his books, Colonel Whelen named James V. Howe as its developer.

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Remington forever legitimized the .35 Whelen when it began loading it in 1988. Eventually, Big Green would offer it in the Model 700 as well as its slide-action and semiautomatic rifles.
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Prior to that, however, the .35 was one of our most popular wildcats. For about as long as it has been around, its origin has been debated. Some are convinced it was James V. Howe who created it, and others argue with equal fervor that it was Col. Townsend Whelen.
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The argument rages on despite the fact that Whelen long ago settled it in two of his books. In the .35 Whelen section of “Why Not Load Your Own?” (1957), he writes, “This cartridge was developed by James V. Howe in 1922 and named for the writer.”
Page 271 of “The Hunting Rifle,” which was published during the early 1940s, reads in part, “In 1922, Mr. James V. Howe and the writer developed the .400 Whelen cartridge. This cartridge was constructed by taking the .30-’06 case before it had been necked at all and necking it down to .40 caliber. About the time we completed development of this cartridge, I went on a long hunting trip in the Northwest, and when I returned, Mr. Howe showed me another cartridge that he had developed. The .30-’06 case was necked to .35 caliber to use existing .35-caliber bullets. Mr. Howe asked my permission to call this cartridge the .35 Whelen, but he alone deserves credit for its development.”


There is little evidence that Col. Townsend Whelen ever hunted with the .35 Whelen.

Whelen was known for his modesty, but he was equally renowned for his painstakingly accurate reporting. Had he been involved in the creation of the cartridge, he would have written so.
I have two different printings of Whelen’s “The Hunting Rifle.” Almost two pages of one are devoted to the .35 Whelen, but in the later printing, the cartridge is hardly mentioned. The earlier book also has a photo of the .35 Whelen alongside a couple of other wildcats: the .276 Dubiel Magnum and the .22-3000 Lovell. That photo is absent in the later book.
As a colonel in the U.S. Army, Whelen was commanding officer of Frankford Arsenal in Philadelphia where James V. Howe was in charge of the machine shop tool room. In addition to his gunsmithing skills, Howe was an accomplished stockmaker.
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After leaving Frankford in 1923, he got together with Seymour Griffin and formed Griffin & Howe, a shop that became widely known for building fine custom rifles. The partnership did not work out, and after about six months, Howe moved on to Hoffman Arms Company in Cleveland, Ohio, where he stayed for a long time.
Even though Col. Whelen staked no claim to the .35 Whelen, we still owe him partial credit for its existence. During the 1920s, American Leslie Simpson was considered to be an authority on hunting the African continent. Among other things, he, along with novelist Steward Edward White and a couple of others, was said to have taken more than 50 lions during a control shoot lasting three weeks.


For the past 25 years, this custom rifle on a Whitworth Model 98 Mauser square-bridge action has been the author’s favorite in .35 Whelen. Its 22-inch Apex barrel was made by the late Sam May, and its 1:12-inch twist handles bullets as long as the 310-grain Woodleigh. Butch Searcy did the barreled action, and it was stocked by E.C. Bishop & Son of Warsaw, Missouri.

Simpson and Whelen became friends, and during one of their conversations, Simpson mentioned using the .35 Winchester and finding it lacking. What was needed for taking thin-skinned African game, including lions, was a cartridge of the same caliber but capable of pushing along a 250-grain bullet at 2,500 to 2,600 feet-per-second. Whelen passed the idea on to James Howe, who came up with two cartridges, one of which was the .35 Whelen while he was at Frankford Arsenal.
After moving on to Griffin & Howe, Howe followed up with the .350 G&H Magnum, and it was loaded by Western Cartridge Company.
Whelen had several favorites, but reading his books, I find very little evidence of the .35-caliber cartridge bearing his name being one of them. In fact, I’m not sure he ever actually hunted with it.
The book “Mister Rifleman,” published by Petersen Publishing Company after Whelen’s death in 1961, has a chapter titled “A Rifleman’s Battery.” It’s filled with two-page-spread photos of about 30 rifles owned by Whelen along with comments on each written by him. The only rifle in the group in .35 Whelen was built on a 1903 Springfield action by James Howe in 1922 and originally had a Niedner barrel in .400 Whelen.


Of the various factory- loaded cartridges of .35 caliber introduced through the years, the .35 Whelen and .35 Remington went on to become the most popular. Left to right: .35 Whelen, .35 Remington, .358 Winchester, .350 Rem. Mag., .35 Winchester, .35 Newton, .350 G&H Mag., .358 Norma Mag.

Due to very little shoulder on its case for headspacing, the .400 was a troublesome cartridge to reload and shoot, yet Whelen did not get around to having the rifle rebarreled to .35 Whelen until around 1950, long after he did most of his hunting. His reloading manual came out seven years later, and he may have needed a rifle in .35 Whelen for developing the loads published in it.
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Col. Whelen was a practical man, and my guess is that he had very little use for the .35 simply because the game he successfully hunted was easily taken with cartridges of smaller calibers and less recoil. His 40-year Army career began not long after the .30-40 Krag was adopted, and both became favorites in the hunting fields.
He later became equally fond of the .30-’06, 7x57mm Mauser and .257 Roberts, but the .270 Winchester that accounted for his best moose seemed to be his favorite. There were others in his life, both factory and wildcats, with the .243 Winchester and .308 Winchester among the last he wrote up while on the technical staff of Guns & Ammo.
Someone who did hunt a great deal with the .35 Whelen was Elmer Keith. Before using it, he used a custom Springfield in .400 Whelen given to him by James Howe in 1925. Like Whelen, he eventually had his rifle rebarreled to .35 Whelen and used it to take what he described as a record-book brown bear during his first hunt in Alaska in 1937.


Col. Whelen, dean of American riflemen, shooting his 7mm rifle on assignment for accuracy and trajectory.

Keith took the bruin with a 275-grain bullet made by Western Tool & Copper Co., his favorite for all-around use. He loaded 57 grains of IMR 4064, but that powder in his day was a bit slower in burn rate than today’s version, since 52 grains is now considered maximum with a bullet of that weight. Elmer speculated that the 300-grain roundnose made by Fred Barnes might be a better choice when hunting elk in heavy timber, but I don’t believe he actually got around to trying it.
In notes written about his .35-caliber Griffin & Howe Springfield, Whelen recommended two loads for it with IMR 4350. One was 61 grains behind a 275-grain roundnose bullet made at the time by Joyce Hornady. Velocity was 2,375 fps. The other was 60 grains with the Barnes 300-grain bullet for 2,350 fps.
He must have been using special brass because I am unable to get that much IMR 4350 into factory .35 Whelen cases or those formed from various brands of .30-’06 brass and still have enough space left to seat bullets at the overall cartridge lengths required by the magazines of various bolt-action rifles. The heaviest charges I can squeeze behind 275- and 300-grain bullets are 59 and 53 grains, respectively, for velocities of 2,219 and 2,059 fps.
Reloder 15 has become the powder for .35 Whelen handloads, not only for me but for several other hunters I know who use the cartridge. Clean-burning, it delivers top velocities with all bullet weights, accuracy is usually very good, and it meters through powder measures with minimum charge-to-charge variation.
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Col. Whelen at Winchester’s Nilo Farms. This photo, taken February 1961, is thought to be his last. He passed away 10 months later, on December 23, 1961, at age 84.

Maximum charges with all bullets weighing from 180 to 210 grains are either 100 percent density or close enough to it. If I were to pick a second favorite, it would be Vihtavuori N-140. Others with similar burn rates include Accurate 2520, Varget, W748 and IMR 4064. Various reloading manuals have data for all of them.
Today’s bullets are much better than in Elmer Keith’s time, and lighter weights than those used by him are capable of taking any game most would want to hunt with the .35 Whelen.
For those who wish to turn back the calendar to the good old days, a few heavyweights are available. Loading the heavier bullets also puts the .35 Whelen on a more equal footing with the 9.3x62mm Mauser. Woodleigh offers a 275-grain Weldcore, and from Swift we have a 280-grain A-Frame. Both are a bit long for the 1:16-inch twist of Remington rifles and usually require 1:14 or quicker.
The Woodleigh 310-grain roundnose is available in both expanding and solid styles; both require a 1:12 twist. I have not tried the 275-grain Lion Load bullet from A-Square, but since it is of roundnose form, it should work in a 1:16 twist. I believe Savage rifles have a 1:12 twist, but I’m not sure about Brownings, Rugers, Winchesters and others.
Unprimed cases are available from Nosler, Hornady, Remington and Norma USA, but necking up .30-’06 cases as in the old days remains an option. A tapered expander button in most .35 Whelen full-length resizing dies makes doing so easy. Applying a light coat of wax-type resizing lube (available from Hornady and Redding) to the mouth of each case makes the job go smoothly. Case loss should be zero if new brass is used.


Remington Express Core-Lokt .35 Whelen, 200 gr.

Remington continues to offer two .35 Whelen loads: 200-grain Core-Lokt and 250-grain softnose, the latter a Hornady bullet. Federal Premium loaded with the 225-grain Trophy Bonded Bear Claw is a good choice when sticking with one load for everything from mice to moose. Nosler ammunition loaded with 225- and 250-grain Partition bullets has a following, and Winchester loads the cartridge as well.
Hornady Superformance with a 200-grain softpoint is the fastest factory load available. I wondered whether the 2,920-fps velocity printed on its box was a misprint, but skepticism turned to amazement when my Oehler Model 33 indicated an average of 2,962 fps from the 22-inch barrel of my Mauser. That’s more than 100 fps faster than maximum handloads with 180-grain bullets in that rifle. It should be devastating on deer. A second load with the 225-grain GMX at 2,800 fps or so would be equally effective on elk and other large game.
I have also owned a couple of Model 700s in this caliber, but my favorite is a custom rifle built about 25 years ago by Butch Searcy, who is now better known for building fine double rifles. He began the project by installing one of Sam May’s Apex barrels on a Whitworth ’98 Mauser square-bridge action.
The barrel is 22 inches long, and since the Barnes 275- and 300-grain bullets were available back then, I specified a rifling twist rate of 1:12 inches. Butch also machined a quarter rib for the barrel, installed a banded ramp sight up front and modified the bolt shroud for a Model 70-style safety.
The barreled action was stocked by E.C. Bishop & Son custom shop in Warsaw, Missouri. The only scope it has ever worn is a Redfield 1-4X variable from the 1960s. It is held in place by quick-detach rings available at the time from Kimber of Oregon. Weight with scope is 8½ pounds. It is the most consistently accurate rifle in .35 Whelen I have ever owned and quite comfortable to shoot.
Down through the decades, a number of .35-caliber cartridges have been introduced, but not a single one has managed to win the hearts of America’s hunters. They range from oldies such as the .35 Remington, .35 Winchester, .35 Whelen, .35 Newton and .350 Griffin & Howe Magnum to newer numbers such as the .358 Winchester, .356 Winchester, .350 Remington Magnum and .358 Norma Magnum.
The .35 Remington was once quite popular among hunters in the east. It is the chambering I chose for my very first store-bought deer rifle and was used to take my first black bear. Sad to say, very few Marlin 336s in that caliber are sold these days.
The .35 Whelen has yet to win a popularity contest among hunters and probably never will, but the fact that it has been in use for more than 90 years is proof of its ability to shrug off the challenges of more modern cartridges. It may eventually be the only cartridge of its caliber we have left.
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Well I thought it was funny!

A Solid Question

All About Guns

American Tactical German Sport’s 9mm MP40 — A Tribute to WWII by JORDAN MICHAELS on JANUARY 20, 2018

Image result for American Tactical German Sport’s 9mm MP40
The Nazi’s inability to conquer Europe wasn’t their only failure of the Second World War. They also failed to successfully invade Russia, exercise basic humanity, march-like normal people, and a host of other blunders. Suffice it to say that in 1,000 years they won’t be remembered as successful, virtuous, or honorable.
But despite their eventual surrender, Hitler’s forces did manage to use more iconic weapons of war than any other army. The Luger pistol, the steel helmet, and the stick grenade became regular fixtures throughout the European theater, but Maschinenpistole 40 surpassed them all.

The MP40 from German Sport Guns and American Tactical combines a historically accurate appearance with modern manufacturing.

The MP40

Known in the English-speaking world as the MP40, it’s difficult to imagine a Nazi soldier without one of these firearms swinging by his side. The Germans produced over 1 million MP40s from 1940 to 1945 and used them to devastating effect against the Allied forces.
American Tactical is now importing the very first reproduction of the MP40 chambered in 9mm. It’s manufactured by German Sport Guns (GSG), and I had a chance to test drive one earlier this year.

A stock would have provided greater stability, but this gun is still seriously fun.


  • Overall Length: 24.5 in.
  • Height: 7 in.
  • Frame Construction: Zamak 5 with Polymer Accents
  • Weight w/ Magazine (Unloaded): 7.875 lbs.
  • Cartridge: 9x19mm
  • Barrel length: 10 in.
  • All-metal detachable 25-round magazine
  • Includes loading assistance accessory
  • MSRP: $650

History of the MP40

German soldier with an MP40 on the Eastern Front in 1944. Photo: By Bundesarchiv.

The fun of this gun lies in its connection to history. According to Spencer Tucker’s Instruments of War: Weapons and Technologies That Have Changed Historythe MP40 was one of the “outstanding small arms weapons of WWII.”
It was based on the MP-38, a similar “machine pistol” designed by Ermawerk a year before the war began. German engineers simplified the MP-38 to develop the MP-40, creating a cheaper version of the firearm by using stamped steel rather than machined parts. This change allowed the German army to manufacture huge quantities of this firearm quickly and easily.
The Nazis originally created the pistol to be used by tank crews and security personnel. Its innovative folding stock allowed soldiers to maneuver it in tight spaces while maintaining enough stability for accurate firing. Even so, accuracy obviously wasn’t a top priority as the original version only had one mode: fully automatic.
The firearm proved to be so effective that the Germans began assigning them to infantry units, who found them to be perfect for the kind of short-range urban warfare so common during WWII.
Today most people know the MP40 from movies and video games where Nazi soldiers shoot from the hip and never, ever hit anything. But the historic firearm claimed thousands of lives in WWII and remains one of the most famous guns in the history of war.

GSG MP40: Construction and Features

German Sport Guns designed their version of the MP40 to imitate the appearance of the original firearm. While it isn’t compatible with WWII-era MP40 parts or magazines, it is made with all-new parts that meet U.S. regulation specifications.

The firearm’s plastic sides can be easily removed to reveal the inner mechanisms underneath. The silver piece pictured above is the trigger bar.


The package comes with several different front sights to adjust for elevation. The rear sight can be flipped up to accommodate longer-range shots. It can also be adjusted for windage.

The frame is made from Zamak 5, a relatively tough zinc alloy most commonly used in Europe. At first, I thought the frame was polymer, but once I removed the plastic “accents” I saw the all-metal body underneath. The firearm feels solid in the hands, and all the parts appeared to be well-machined.
The rear sight includes two settings, one for short range and one for longer range. The front sight features a white bead to distinguish it from the rear black notch sights. The package includes several different heights of front sights, so users can choose the height that most closely matches the point of impact. The rear sight arrived loose, and though I couldn’t determine a way to secure it, it didn’t seem to affect accuracy.

Shootability could be improved with either a sling or a shoulder stock, both of which can be attached to the firearm.

The MP40’s weight (7.875 lbs) reduces recoil to almost nothing but makes the firearm tiring to aim for extended periods of time. I would recommend using a sling, which can be attached at two points on the gun. Shooters will also be able to purchase a rear stock kit from American Tactical in the near future.

GSG MP40: Function

Just a few notes on how this firearm operates. The safety is located underneath the firearm, and it functions like a rotating dial. I’ve never seen a safety like this, but its location is intuitive and the dial is easy to operate.
The magazine release is a large button on the left side of the firearm. It’s also easy to operate, but I found that the heel of my hand accidentally pressed it while firing. I could adjust my support hand towards the rear of the gun, but it felt less comfortable.

The trigger isn’t designed for a crisp break.

The trigger is not what I would call match quality. The pull is heavy (it maxed out my analog scale), mushy, and long. It works fine, but don’t expect to be hitting any squirrels at 50 yards (unless you want to unload the magazine, which is always an option).
The MP40 can be broken down in just a few minutes for cleaning and maintenance. Removing the action pin allows the firearm to be separated into two halves, and from there the bolt and spring can be removed and cleaned.

The bolt can be locked to the rear to check the chamber or load another magazine.

GSG MP40: Testing

Despite the MP40’s quirks, I had a blast shooting it. Its lack of a stock limits its applications, but it’s a great range gun and fun to shoot. While I don’t advocate pretending to be a Nazi, shooting from the hip like a Hollywood SS officer is more than a little amusing.
If you’ve read other reviews of this gun, you might have seen writers report feeding problems. While the gun jammed twice the first time at the range, it fed perfectly for hundreds of rounds after that. I used loads from Federal, Hornady, and American Eagle—both round nose and hollow point—and I never experienced any issues.
The folks at American Tactical say they’ve tested the firearm with “115 & 147 grain factory new ammunition” and “135 grain hollow point” loads. While they admit that “it is not possible to adjust a semi-automatic gun to all loads,” a properly lubed firearm should be able to handle a wide variety of ammunition.

I experienced two failures to eject within the first 60 rounds or so. After that, the gun functioned flawlessly.

Like I mentioned previously, this firearm isn’t designed for extreme accuracy. I used a front rest and fired five-shot groups with several different loads from 25 yards. I used…

  • American Eagle 115-grain TSJ
  • Federal Train and Protect 115-grain Versatile Hollow Point
  • Hornady Steel Match 125-grain Hollow Point

The results weren’t overwhelming, but it’s difficult to maintain the same point of aim with iron sights.

All groups are within approximately 5 inches.

I also fired Hornady’s 115-grain. XTP Hollow Point ammunition and Federal’s 124g. Personal Defense HST. I didn’t do accuracy testing with these rounds, but they fed without any issues.
I should also mention that I didn’t have any trouble hitting 6-inch steel plates from 20 yards. That’s nothing to write home about, but it demonstrates that the MP40’s accuracy won’t get in the way of having a good time at the range.

Lasting Impressions

If you’re a WWII buff looking to have some fun, the MP40 is for you. It functions well, it looks great, and it’s a blast to shoot.
With the addition of a stock, this firearm could also function as a truck gun or even a home defense weapon. It stores easily in a small space, the magazine capacity is excellent, and the low recoil allows for easy maneuvering. Handgun caliber carbines are a popular choice for these applications, and the MP40 could fill that hole nicely.
As original WWII-era guns become ever more rare, I hope companies like German Sport Guns and American Tactical continue to provide customers with the ability to own a “part” of history without breaking the bank.
For more information about American Tactical Imports MP40, click here.
To purchase an American Tactical Imports MP40 on GunsAmerica, click here.

Anti Civil Rights ideas & "Friends"

Colorado Woman w/ CCW Arrested for Carrying Handgun in New York by JORDAN MICHAELS on JANUARY 30, 2018

Haley Leach has a valid Colorado concealed carry permit.  But that doesn’t matter in the land of Bloomberg.  (Photo: Twitter)

Another day, another reason to pass the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act.
Local media outlets reported earlier this month that a Colorado woman had been arrested at the Albany International Airport after trying to check in a handgun with airport security.
The woman, Haley Leach, 28, had been vacationing in Hunter, New York, since November and was attempting to fly home. When she tried to declare her handgun to Southwest Airlines representatives, they telephoned the police because she didn’t possess a New York pistol permit.
Despite holding a valid Colorado concealed carry permit, Leach was charged with criminal possession of a weapon and released on bail. She must return to New York in February to appear in court.
The New York legislature has imposed some of the strictest gun laws in the nation. But as anyone from the state will say, big-city politicians don’t speak for every Empire State resident.
“We’re taking so many law abiding citizens and basically making them criminals,” Albany County Sheriff Craig Apple told News10 ABC.
“These are people that are professionals,” he said. “They are doctors, pilots, lawyers, cops, firemen, whatever the case may be, and then when they go to fly out they get arrested.”

SEE ALSO: Meet the Face of National Concealed Carry Reciprocity: Shaneen Allen

Apple said the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act would keep people from ending up like Leach. But until then he’ll be forced to arrest out-of-state residents who have no criminal intent.
“This is sad because it’s happening more and more,” he said.
Apple’s isn’t the only one frustrated with the patchwork of state gun laws.
Leslie McDermott runs an indoor shooting range and gun store in New York. He says that out-of-state customers come in daily who do not realize they might be breaking the law.
“Traveling through, see our sign, and stop in,” McDermott told News10 ABC. “They can’t shoot here because they don’t have a New York State pistol permit.”
“It’s frustrating for people who don’t know the law,” he said.
The National Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act of 2017 would force state officials to treat concealed carry permits much like drivers’ licenses. If the legislation passes, Leach’s Colorado permit will be valid in New York and vice versa.
The House of Representatives passed the bill in December with a bipartisan vote of 231 to 198. The bill now faces a much more difficult fight in the Senate, where Republicans hold a razor-thin 51-49 majority.


W. W. Greener, Ltd. — EG Special Bore Police Shotgun

W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 1

W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 2
W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 3
W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 4
W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 5
W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 6
W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 7
W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 8
W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 9
W. W. Greener, Ltd. - EG Special Bore Police Shotgun - Picture 10
I would hate to be on the wrong side of this puppy!
 W. W. Greener EG Special Bore Police Shotgun. These EG models were uses in the Egyptian Military and police Departments. These single shot Martini style shotguns were chambered for a unique shotshell.
It shouldn’t be used with a standard 12 gauge shell. I have read that a cut down (2” or 2-1/2) low brass 12 gauge shell can be made to work but you will need to have a conversion performed or you damage the split tip firing pin if not converted to a standard Martini rifle firing pin. The barrel length is 26 inches and overall length of firearm is 42 inches.
W.W. Greener is a sporting shotgun and rifle manufacturer from England. The company produced its first firearm in 1829 and is still in business, with a fifth generation Greener serving on its board of directors.

W. W. Greener Ltd
Industry Firearms
Founded 1829
Founder William Greener
Headquarters ChippenhamUnited Kingdom
Area served
Products Rifles


The history of W.W. Greener begins in 1829, when William Greener, who had been working in London for Manton, a prominent gun maker, returned to his hometown of Newcastle and founded the W. Greener company. In November 1844, he determined that most of the materials and components he used for gun making came from Birmingham, and his business was being hampered by the distance between the two towns. Hence, he moved his business from Newcastle to Birmingham.
During the period of 1845-58, W. Greener was appointed to make guns for Prince Albert. Money obtained from supplying South Africa with two-groove rifles enabled the company to erect a factory on “Rifle Hill”, Aston, in 1859. It was around this time that the company began to really prosper.
Greener was a firm believer in the concept of muzzleloaders and refused to make any breechloaders. Hence, his son, William Wellington Greener, struck out a line of his own (the W.W. Greener company) and produced his first breechloader in 1864. When William Greener died in 1869, the two companies were amalgamated together as the W.W. Greener Company, and carried on by William Wellington Greener. William Wellington Greener was responsible for several innovations, as described in the sections below, and it was on the strength of his inventions that the company became famous. Under W.W. Greener, the company established offices in Birmingham, London, HullMontreal and New York City.
William Wellington Greener was succeeded by two of his sons, Harry Greener and Charles Greener. Leyton Greener, Harry’s son and fourth generation took over as Chairman in 1951 and today the company has a fifth generation, Graham Greener, as one of its directors.


Production of Greener weapons started in 1829, when W. Greener began manufacturing his muzzleloaders. W. Greener was the first to discard vent holes in breeches. He was also instrumental in improving the hardness and quality of barrels, by using more steel in their manufacture. He also improved the Harpoon Gun and his model was the one adopted by the Scottish Fisheries, and is still in use today. His greatest innovation was the invention of the expanding rifle bullet.
In 1845-59, W. Greener was appointed to make sporting guns for the Prince Consort. In the 1851 London Exhibition, the company received the highest award “for guns and barrels perfectly forged and finished”. In 1853 and 1855, the company received Silver medals at the New York City and Paris Exhibitions. The company’s products were also sold for as much as 75 pounds, in the Southern states of America, before the Civil War.
Since W. Greener did not believe in breechloaders, his son, W.W. Greener started his own factory. In 1864, he produced his first patent, an under-lever pin-fire half-cocking breechloader with a top bolt entering the barrel underneath the top rib.
When W. Greener died in 1869, his son W.W. Greener merged the two companies into one. His next patent was the self-acting striker, followed by a famous cross-bolt mechanism produced as a single top bolt, in 1865. In 1873, this cross-bolt mechanism was combined with the bottom holding down bolts to produce the “Treble Wedge-Fast” breech action. The treble wedge-fast was one of the strongest breech actions ever invented and was widely copied by other manufacturers, after the patent rights expired.
The introduction of choke boring in 1874 is regarded as W.W. Greener’s greatest achievement. It was this invention that made the firm’s name famous. A discussion about this is in the section below.
In 1876, the firm introduced the Treble Wedge-Fast Hammerless Gun, otherwise known as the “Facile Princeps”. This gun was cocked by the dropping of the barrels. This action was one of the strongest ever produced. The W.W. Greener company restarted production of Facile Princeps guns in 1998.
In 1880, the firm produced a self-acting ejector for its guns, followed by the “Unique” ejector gun. These guns were designed to eject the spent cartridges when the gun was opened. Manufacture of the “Unique” ejectors stopped during the Second World War, and the company has recently begun to manufacture them again.
In 1895, W.W. Greener invented the world’s first Humane Killer, a gun designed to kill cattle, sheep, pigs and horses, quickly and easily. This instrument was adopted by the War Office, for use in the Veterinary, Remount and Butchering Departments, and by the Admiralty for its Victualling yards. The instrument was also modified to use .310 caliber cartridges. After several years, the models became obsolete in the 1960s and ammunition for the older models was impossible to obtain. Recently though, the company was asked to manufacture another model and hence, the Humane Killer Mk II was introduced. This new gun fires a .32 ACP round.

Choke bores[edit]

The introduction of choke bores was largely responsible for the fame of the W.W. Greener name. The invention of choke boring is usually attributed to American gunsmiths. The first known patents for choke boring were granted to a Mr. Sylvester H. Roper, an American inventor and gunsmith, (U.S. Patent 53,881, Improvement In Revolving Fire-Arms, April 10, 1866; and U.S. Patent 79,861, Improvements In Detachable Muzzle For Shot-Guns, dated July 14, 1868.) This was followed by a patent claim in London by Mr. Pape, an English Gun maker, whose patent application was six weeks too late to the 1866 Roper patent. Mr. J.W. Long, in his book “American Wildfowling”, credits a Mr. Jeremiah Smith of Southfield, Rhode Island, as the gunsmith who first discovered the concept, as far back as 1827.[1]
While American gunsmiths were the pioneers of the choke boring system, they had not really progressed beyond the elementary stage and their guns would lead, throw irregular patterns and not shoot straight.
W.W. Greener’s first intimation of the choke formation was derived from instructions given in a customer’s letter, in early 1874. The customer’s instructions described a choke, but did not give any details on the size or shape, or how it was to be obtained. Hence, W.W. Greener had to conduct many experiments to determine the perfect shape and size of a choke for a given bore. After that, he developed tools to produce the choke bore profile correctly and smoothly. The system of choke boring that he pioneered was so successful that it was later adopted by other manufacturers and hence, some authorities give him the credit for inventing the concept.
In December 1874, the first mention of Greener’s choke bore appeared in an article by J.H. Walsh, the Editor of Field magazine. The article mentioned the extraordinary shot pattern that the Greener shotgun could produce. The next issue came with an advertisement from W.W. Greener, stating that the firm would guarantee that their new guns would shoot a closer pattern than any other manufacturer. The advertisement claimed that Greener 12 bores were warranted to shoot an average pattern of 210, when the best 12 bore gun in the London Gun Trial of 1866 could only average 127. Naturally, the advertisement generated considerable controversy, especially from rival manufacturers of cylinder guns, who refused to believe the numbers quoted in the advertisement.
In order to resolve the controversy, the Editors of Field magazine decided to conduct a public trial in 1875. The London Trial of 1875 pitted choke bores and cylinder guns of various manufacturers in four categories—Class 1 (large bores, any boring), Class 2 (Choke bores, 12 gauge), Class 3 (Guns of English boring or Cylinders) and Class 4 (Small gauges, any boring). The choke bored guns performed better than the cylinder guns in all these tests, and W.W. Greener choke bore guns won the class 1, class 2 and class 4 categories. Greener Choke bores also won at the London Gun Trials of 1877 and 1879, and the Chicago Field Gun Trial of 1879. The results of these trials were responsible for making the W.W. Greener name famous.

Fake Greener guns[edit]

During the 1880s, as the company became well known, several small manufacturers in Belgium and Australia attempted to manufacture copies of Greener weapons. In several cases, the name was misleadingly similar: Greenen, Horace Greener, Albert Greener, A. Greener, W.H. Greener, A.H. Greener etc. are several examples of names of spurious weapons. Note that J.H. Greener and Albert Greener were two brothers of W W Greener and both brothers also made guns. Most J H Greener and a few Albert Greener guns are genuine.
In other cases, the maker would print “Greener” in bold gilt letters on the top rib and their own name in small characters, elsewhere on the gun. When one of these makers was challenged in Belgian courts, the defence advanced the theory that the weapons were using the Greener cross-bolt system and hence, the larger letters were intended to refer to the system, and not the maker of the weapon.
Due to the large number of forgeries, the W.W. Greener company offers to authenticate genuine Greener weapons for a small fee.

In popular culture[edit]

Wilbur Jonas, the general store owner, offers to sell Matt Dillon four Greener shotguns at an attractive price, in “Renegade White”, episode 4.30 of Gunsmoke.
Episode S5E1 of The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp (1959), Earp is confront by “Shotgun Gibbs” who is armed with a Greener loaded with a rifled slug.[citation needed]
In the film Big Jake, John Wayne’s character asks his ex-wife, Martha (played by Maureen O’Hara), if she brought his “Greeners, the double-barrels”. Wayne then proceeds to open a gun case revealing matching shotguns and his favorite derringer, “Betsy”. There is also a reference in the 1973 film Cahill U.S. Marshal where Wayne is in a box car with several prisoners and one says, “You’re not going to leave that old Greener on cock are you?”.
In the Blood Bond book series by William W. Johnstone, most shotguns and sporting guns are referred to as greeners.
In the 1975 classic Jaws, Robert Shaw’s Quint character uses a modified Greener harpoon gun.


Teasdale-Buckle, G.T., Experts on Guns and Shooting, Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Greener, William Wellington, The Gun and Its Development, Ninth Edition, Bonanza Books NY, 1910 Greener, Graham N., The Greener Story, Quiller Press, 2000

See also[edit]