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What to look for in a Gun Range

Now for some of folks trapped out here in the Peoples Republic of California like me. One has to make due with what they have.
Image result for gun ranges

 Fortunately for me there are a couple of not too bad ranges. But there are some real losers also that I shun as much as I can.
Image result for gun ranges
  But as usual I am going out on another tangent. So let us get back to the point of this article.
My Check List of what to look for in a Shooting Range
  The first thing is that I look for is to see what the condition of the Range looks like. If there is a lot of trash and the overall area looks like it has seen better days. Then I do not even get out of the car.
Image result for lots of garbage
  Because that tells me a lot about how this place is run. I.E. very sloppy and loose.
  Which equals in my mind a place where the chances of me being shot are way above average. Yeah I know I am a pussy! But I am willing to forgo the experience of going to the ER with a gunshot wound.
                                 *****Trigger warning *****
                PROFILING IS BEING DISCUSSED BELOW!
  Next thing I do is the following. I.E. talking to the Staff for a while. Now do not get me wrong. But I judge a person by the way they talk , walk and conduct themselves.
  If they do not seem to have their shit together or they are flaming assholes. I am leaving here asap.
  As I have  seen way too many Range Nazi’s in my life. Who go on full power trips for no reason at all in my time. As they all seem to think that they look like this. (My Apologies to all of the D.I.’s Of the USMC.)
Image result for Rifle Range Nazis
  But on the other hand I do not want some staff guy who is gone ROAD = Retired On Active Duty.
Image result for really bad rifle ranges staff
Image result for really bad rifle ranges
BECAUSE AS I HAVE STATED BEFORE I DO NOT WANT TO BE SHOT!
  But let us move on Dear Reader!
Image result for large denomination horse blanket banknotes
  Now you would think that I will start crying about the high cost of shooting at Ranges. Well my Brothers & Sisters, I think not.
  As these folks have to eat also. Plus it takes a large chunk of change to keep these places going. (The Insurance Rates alone must be huge.)
  So I do not begrudge them the couple of extra bucks for me to shoot there.
  Because it’s all the price of doing business. That and sadly shooting has always been a very expensive hobby.
  As I do not care what the Old Timers have said. Its always has been & always will be costly to own a gun.
  But enough of that. So let us endth the lesson here. I hope that you have found this useful. That & Thanks for your precious time that you spent reading this!
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When Sikhs get bored

I know a few of these Guys in the Army. They are some great Soldiers & folks.
Enjoy!

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Another Great Reason Why I am glad that I did not join the US Navy!

MailOnline US - news, sport, celebrity, science and health stories

The secrets of the USS Indianapolis revealed: Incredible footage shows how the warship was hit by two Japanese torpedoes and its guns are still locked and loaded after it was discovered on the seabed after 72 years by Microsoft billionaire Paul Allen

  • Deep sea explorers used a drone which was sent to the ocean floor in order to beam back stunning images of the USS Indianapolis 
  • Last month, researchers found the wreckage of the Indianapolis, which was sunk by a Japanese torpedo in the final days of World War Two
  • The Indianapolis lies over three miles below the surface of the sea somewhere between Guam and the Philippines 
  • Paul Allen, the billionaire co-founder of Microsoft, sent an expedition toward the bottom of the sea to map out what remains of the Indianapolis 

The USS Indianapolis cruiser was returning from its mission to deliver components for the atomic bomb that would soon be dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima when it was fired upon in the North Pacific Ocean by a Japanese submarine on July 30, 1945

Exactly how the USS Indianapolis was sunk 72 years ago has been revealed after the wreck was inspected by a drone following its discovery last month by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen.

Footage from the submersible shows that the warship was hit by two Japanese torpedoes, fragments of which can be seen, and how one struck a chamber containing scores of crew members who would have died instantly.

It also reveals how the ship’s huge cannons and guns are still ‘locked and loaded’ with shells and bullets. Parts of SC-1 SeaHawk scout planes can be seen, the doorway to the captain’s cabin and the ship’s ‘victory tally’ of how many enemy planes and boats it had downed.

The ship has been incredibly well preserved because it came to rest three miles below the surface of the ocean where the sea is extremely cold and contains little oxygen.

The Indianapolis was hit by a Japanese submarine in the Philippine Sea on July 30, 1945. It had just delivered components for the first atomic bomb.

It sunk in 12 minutes and of the 1,197 men aboard, roughly 300 went down with the ship. By the time rescuers arrived, a combination of exposure, dehydration, drowning and constant shark attacks had left only 317 men alive.

Deep sea explorers used a drone which was sent to the ocean floor in order to beam back stunning images of the USS Indianapolis

Deep sea explorers used a drone which was sent to the ocean floor in order to beam back stunning images of the USS Indianapolis

The USS Indianapolis is a naval gunship that lies three miles beneath the surface of the Philippine Sea after it was sunk by a Japanese torpedo during World War II

The USS Indianapolis is a naval gunship that lies three miles beneath the surface of the Philippine Sea after it was sunk by a Japanese torpedo during World War II

The 'victory tally' is seen above. It was meant to symbolize the number of Japanese ships and aircraft that were downed

The ‘victory tally’ is seen above. It was meant to symbolize the number of Japanese ships and aircraft that were downed

Allen’s research vessel, the Petrel, is  fitted with an autonomous underwater vehicle that can conduct deep-see missions to 6,000 meters (3.7miles) below the surface.

The Petrel’s drone beamed back stunning pictures of what it discovered on the USS Indianapolis in a live broadcast that was simulcast on both PBS and Paul Allen’s web site.

It showed that 20 feet of the Indianapolis was buried in the mud at the bottom of the ocean between Guam and the Philippines. Portions of the warship remain preserved, including part of the forward deck.

The USS Indianapolis is a naval gunship that lies three miles beneath the surface of the Philippine Sea after it was sunk by a Japanese torpedo during World War II
The USS Indianapolis is a naval gunship that lies three miles beneath the surface of the Philippine Sea after it was sunk by a Japanese torpedo during World War II

The ‘victory tally’ is seen above. It was meant to symbolize the number of Japanese ships and aircraft that were downed

The image of the Indianapolis is seen with the use of sonar, which enables researchers to map out the debris field

 

Upon The image of the Indianapolis is seen with the use of sonar, which enables researchers to map out the debris field

The image shows that the ship remains largely intact thanks to the depth of its location, the lack of oxygen, and the cold temperatures
The image shows that the ship remains largely intact thanks to the depth of its location, the lack of oxygen, and the cold temperatures
The USS Indianapolis was a ship that was built for its plethora of guns. The crew was also able to glimpse the 5-inch AFT gun, which fired a 50-pound shell about seven miles
The USS Indianapolis was a ship that was built for its plethora of guns. The crew was also able to glimpse the 5-inch AFT gun, which fired a 50-pound shell about seven miles
The expedition was also able to get an up-close look at a .40m anti-aircraft Starboard gun
The expedition was also able to get an up-close look at a .40m anti-aircraft Starboard gun
The shells that are still locked and loaded into the gun are visible
The shells that are still locked and loaded into the gun are visible
The stunning images also showed the debris field surrounding the Indianapolis. The above image shows part of an aircraft
The stunning images also showed the debris field surrounding the Indianapolis. The above image shows part of an aircraft
The aircraft hangar, where the ship stored the scout planes that were used for reconnaissance, is seen in the above image
The aircraft hangar, where the ship stored the scout planes that were used for reconnaissance, is seen in the above image
When the expedition first caught a glimpse of the number '35' as seen above, it was confirmation that the vessel was the Indianapolis
When the expedition first caught a glimpse of the number ’35’ as seen above, it was confirmation that the vessel was the Indianapolis
The U.S. Navy and Paul Allen's expedition team have agreed to keep the exact location of the vessel confidential

The U.S. Navy and Paul Allen’s expedition team have agreed to keep the exact location of the vessel confidential
The USS Indianapolis is now effectively an underwater grave and a war memorial to the lives lost

 
 

looking at the damage done by torpedoes, researchers evaluated the weight of one weapon’s warhead (1,200 pounds), the speed at which it traveled (48 knots), and the range (between six and seven kilometers).

An image beamed back from the drone showed the ship’s barbette, a structure that can hold guns that are 250 tons in weight. A gun still held by the structure had a barrel of 36 feet and a shell weight of 350lb.

Researchers noted that there is damage to the barbette, which they believe was caused by one of the torpedoes, which hit the ship between 40 and 50 feet below its location.

The expedition also was able to get an up-close look at a .40m anti-aircraft Starboard gun. The shells that are still locked and loaded into the gun are still visible.

The image of the Indianapolis is seen with the use of sonar, which enables researchers to map out the debris field

The image of the Indianapolis is seen with the use of sonar, which enables researchers to map out the debris field

The image shows that the ship remains largely intact thanks to the depth of its location, the lack of oxygen, and the cold temperatures

The image shows that the ship remains largely intact thanks to the depth of its location, the lack of oxygen, and the cold temperatures

The USS Indianapolis was a ship that was built for its plethora of guns. The crew was also able to glimpse the 5-inch AFT gun, which fired a 50-pound shell about seven miles

The USS Indianapolis was a ship that was built for its plethora of guns. The crew was also able to glimpse the 5-inch AFT gun, which fired a 50-pound shell about seven miles

The expedition was also able to get an up-close look at a .40m anti-aircraft Starboard gun

The expedition was also able to get an up-close look at a .40m anti-aircraft Starboard gun

The shells that are still locked and loaded into the gun are visible

The shells that are still locked and loaded into the gun are visible

The stunning images also showed the debris field surrounding the Indianapolis. The above image shows part of an aircraft

The stunning images also showed the debris field surrounding the Indianapolis. The above image shows part of an aircraft

The aircraft hangar, where the ship stored the scout planes that were used for reconnaissance, is seen in the above image

The aircraft hangar, where the ship stored the scout planes that were used for reconnaissance, is seen in the above image

When the expedition first caught a glimpse of the number '35' as seen above, it was confirmation that the vessel was the Indianapolis

When the expedition first caught a glimpse of the number ’35’ as seen above, it was confirmation that the vessel was the Indianapolis

The U.S. Navy and Paul Allen's expedition team have agreed to keep the exact location of the vessel confidential

The U.S. Navy and Paul Allen’s expedition team have agreed to keep the exact location of the vessel confidential

The USS Indianapolis is now effectively an underwater grave and a war memorial to the lives lost

The USS Indianapolis is now effectively an underwater grave and a war memorial to the lives lost

A 5-inch AFT gun, which could fire a 50-pound shell about seven miles, and 40-millimeter quad guns were also found near the sunken ship. Because the ship capsized, two of the three guns on board fell overboard.

The image near the barbette shows a doorway that leads into the cabin of the captain of the Indianapolis, Charles Butler McVay III

Also seen in the drone footage is a doorway that led into the cabin of the captain of the Indianapolis, Charles Butler McVay III.

Nearby the ship, researchers found the remnants of two SC-1 SeaHawk scout planes – which were used largely for reconnaissance – that were held in the ship’s aircraft hangar.

The researchers also find the remnants of two SC-1 SeaHawk scout planes - which were used largely for reconnaissance - that were held in the ship's aircraft hangar

A piece of one of the wings is seen on the ocean floor with the clear insignia of the US Navy. One of the aircraft’s panels is also clearly visible, as is a first aid kit used by pilots.

Through sonar, scientists were able to map out the debris field at the bottom of the sea – just over three miles from the surface of the water.

The map of the field enables scientists to determine the direction (west) and the speed (17 knots) at which the ship was moving when it was taken down by Japanese torpedoes.

The debris found around the sunken ship includes a bridge and a number of guns that came off the warship as it sank.

Another object that survived largely intact was the crane used by the warship to lift planes back aboard.

The scientists were able to discover that 20 feet of the Indianapolis was buried in the mud at the bottom of the ocean between Guam and the Philippines

Portions of the warship remain preserved, including part of the forward deck. The researchers operating the drone use remote control to get the lay of the land from the bow to the stern of the ship

Portions of the warship remain preserved, including part of the forward deck. The researchers operating the drone use remote control to get the lay of the land from the bow to the stern of the ship

The image near the barbette shows a doorway that leads into the cabin of the captain of the Indianapolis, Charles Butler McVay III

The image near the barbette shows a doorway that leads into the cabin of the captain of the Indianapolis, Charles Butler McVay III

Another image beamed back from the drone shows the barbette, the gun emplacement used by a warship

Another image beamed back from the drone shows the barbette, the gun emplacement used by a warship

The above image shows the hull of the ship, which is largely intact though the signs of damage caused by one of the torpedoes are apparent

The above image shows the hull of the ship, which is largely intact though the signs of damage caused by one of the torpedoes are apparent

The researchers also find the remnants of two SC-1 SeaHawk scout planes - which were used largely for reconnaissance - that were held in the ship's aircraft hangar

The researchers also find the remnants of two SC-1 SeaHawk scout planes – which were used largely for reconnaissance – that were held in the ship’s aircraft hangar

The USS Indianapolis cruiser was returning from its mission to deliver components for the atomic bomb that would soon be dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima when it was fired upon in the North Pacific Ocean by a Japanese submarine on July 30, 1945

The USS Indianapolis cruiser was returning from its mission to deliver components for the atomic bomb that would soon be dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima when it was fired upon in the North Pacific Ocean by a Japanese submarine on July 30, 1945

The ship was found in August with the R/V Petrel, which Allen had recently purchased, retrofitting the 250-foot vessel with state-of-the-art technology capable of diving to 6,000 meters.

Researchers with Allen’s organization were able to locate the ship in part because of a naval landing craft that had recorded a sighting of the USS Indianapolis the night that it was torpedoed, using the coordinates to get a location on the ship.

The US Navy and Allen’s expedition have kept the exact location of the ship, which is essentially an underwater grave and war memorial, a secret.

The USS Indianapolis cruiser was returning from its mission to deliver components for the atomic bomb that would soon be dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima when it was fired upon in the North Pacific Ocean by a Japanese submarine on July 30, 1945.

It sunk in 12 minutes, according to the Naval History and Heritage Command in Washington.

Of the 1,197 men aboard the Indianapolis, roughly 300 went down with the ship.

The remaining 900 men went into the shark-infested water, with few life boats and almost no food or water.

For four days, those who didn’t have lifejackets clung to those who did, as whitetip and Tiger sharks circled the wreckage and picked off survivors.

Allen said that the discovery was a humbling experience and a means of honoring sailors he saw as playing a vital role in ending World War Two

Allen said that the discovery was a humbling experience and a means of honoring sailors he saw as playing a vital role in ending World War Two

‘There soon were hundreds of fins around us,’ recalled survivor Harold Eck, an 18-year-old seaman at the time.

‘The first attack I saw was on a sailor who had drifted away from the group. I heard yelling and screaming and saw him thrashing . . . then I just saw red, foamy water.’

Another survivor said: ‘They were upon us every three or four hours.’ Bugler First Class Donald Mack would never forget those screams and the realization: ‘There was one less man to be rescued.’

The feeding frenzy which ensued remains the worst shark attack on humans in recorded history.

There was no time to send a distress signal before the ship sank, and four days passed before a bomber on routine patrol happened to spot the survivors in the water.

USS Indianapolis

Commissioned: November 15, 1932

Class: Portland-class cruiser

Wartime Complement: Up to 1,269

Awards: Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with ten battle stars; American Defense Service Medal; World War II Victory Medal

Fate: Sunk on July 30, 1945 by Japanese submarine

By the time rescuers arrived, a combination of exposure, dehydration, drowning and constant shark attacks had left only 317 men, one-fourth of the ship’s original number, alive.

It wasn’t until after the war that the crew of the Indy learned the true story of the secret mission that had put them in the crosshairs of Japanese torpedoes.

At the time, all they knew was that they were transporting a large wooden crate from a naval yard in San Francisco to the island of Tinian, the busiest US air-base in the Pacific.

The men had joked that it probably contained nothing more than a consignment of luxury toilet paper for the Navy top brass.

In reality it contained about half of the world’s supply of enriched uranium at the time, and atomic bomb components.

The mission was successful, and the materials were used in the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The Indianapolis was steaming onward to the Philippines when two torpedoes from the Japanese sub I-58 struck it.

Capt. William Toti (Ret), spokesperson for the survivors of the USS Indianapolis, said upon learning of the discovery that every soldier, to a man, ‘have longed for the day when their ship would be found, solving their final mystery.’

‘They all know this is now a war memorial, and are grateful for the respect and dignity that Paul Allen and his team have paid to one of the most tangible manifestations of the pain and sacrifice of our World War II veterans.’

The USS Indianapolis (CA-35) was a 9,800-ton Portland Class heavy cruiser that operated in the Atlantic and Pacific, and earned 10 battle stars during WWII.

The sinking of the USS Indianapolis remains the most tragic maritime disaster in US naval history.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4882728/Paul-Allen-reconstructs-doomed-battleship-sank.html#ixzz4sgEfKGrF
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Annie Oakely – The Answer to Women should not shoot!

Inline image 1
Image result for annie oakley shooting glass balls
Now quite a few times in my life. I have had some Ladies say to me. That shooting is boring and not a sport for Women. So I then tell them about Little Miss Sure Shot. It almost never fails to impress the Woman Folks.
Especially when I tell about how shooting helped her support herself & her family. Way back in the Dark Ages / Late Victorian for Women.
Here is some more information about this amazing Marksman!

From Wikipedia

Annie Oakley
Annie Oakley by Baker's Art Gallery c1880s-crop.jpg

Oakley in the 1880s.
Born Phoebe Ann Mosey
August 13, 1860
Near Willowdell, Ohio, United States
Died November 3, 1926 (aged 66)
Greenville, Ohio, United States
Cause of death Pernicious anemia
Spouse(s) Frank E. Butler (m. 1876; d. 1926)
Parent(s) Susan Wise Mosey (1830–1908), Jacob Mosey (1799–1866)
Signature
Annie Oakley Signature.svg

 
Annie Oakley (born Phoebe Ann Mosey; August 13, 1860 – November 3, 1926) was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Her “amazing talent”[1] first came to light when she was 15 years old, when she won a shooting match with traveling-show marksman Frank E. Butler, whom she eventually married. The couple joined Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show a few years later. Oakley became a renowned international star, performing before royalty and heads of state.
Oakley also was variously known as “Miss Annie Oakley”, “Little Sure Shot”, “Little Miss Sure Shot”, “Watanya Cicilla”, “Phoebe Anne Oakley”, “Mrs. Annie Oakley”, “Mrs. Annie Butler”, and “Mrs. Frank Butler”. Her death certificate gives her name as “Annie Oakley Butler”

Early life

Annie Oakley was born Phoebe Ann (Annie) Mosey[3][4][5] on August 13, 1860, in a cabin less than two miles (3.2 km) northwest of Woodland, now Willowdell, in Darke County, Ohio, a rural western border county of Ohio.[6] Her birthplace log cabin site is about five miles east of North Star. There is a stone-mounted plaque in the vicinity of the cabin site, which was placed by the Annie Oakley Committee in 1981, 121 years after her birth.
Annie’s parents were Quakers of English descent from HollidaysburgBlair County, Pennsylvania: Susan Wise, age 18,[7][8] and Jacob Mosey, born 1799, age 49, married in 1848. They moved to a rented farm (later purchased with a mortgage) in Patterson Township, Darke County, Ohio, sometime around 1855.
Born in 1860, Annie was the sixth of Jacob and Susan’s nine children, and the fifth out of the seven surviving.[9] Her siblings were Mary Jane (1851–1867), Lydia (1852–1882), Elizabeth (1855–1881), Sarah Ellen (1857–1939), Catherine (1859–1859), John (1861–1949), Hulda (1864–1934) and a stillborn infant brother in 1865. Annie’s father, who had fought in the War of 1812, became an invalid from overexposure during a blizzard in late 1865 and died of pneumonia in early 1866 at age 66.[10] Her mother later married Daniel Brumbaugh, had one more child, Emily (1868–1937), and was widowed for a second time.
Because of poverty following the death of her father, Annie did not regularly attend school as a child, although she did attend later in childhood and in adulthood.[11] On March 15, 1870, at age nine, Annie was admitted to the Darke County Infirmary, along with elder sister Sarah Ellen. According to her autobiography, she was put in the care of the infirmary’s superintendent, Samuel Crawford Edington, and his wife Nancy, who taught her to sew and decorate. Beginning in the spring of 1870, she was “bound out” to a local family to help care for their infant son, on the false promise of fifty cents a week and an education. The couple had originally wanted someone who could pump water, cook, and who was bigger. She spent about two years in near-slavery to them where she endured mental and physical abuse. One time, the wife put Annie out in the freezing cold, without shoes, as a punishment because she had fallen asleep over some darning.[12]Annie referred to them as “the wolves”. Even in her autobiography, she never revealed the couple’s real name.[13]
According to biographer Glenda Riley, “the wolves” could have been the Studabaker family.[14] However, the 1870 U.S. Census suggests that “the wolves” were the Abram Boose family of neighboring Preble County.[15][16] Around the spring of 1872, Annie ran away from “the wolves”. According to biographer Shirl Kasper, it was only at this point that Annie had met and lived with the Edingtons, returning to her mother’s home around the age of 15.[17] Annie’s mother married a third time, to Joseph Shaw, on October 25, 1874.[citation needed]
Annie began trapping before the age of seven, and shooting and hunting by age eight, to support her siblings and her widowed mother. She sold the hunted game to locals in Greenville, such as shopkeepers Charles and G. Anthony Katzenberger, who shipped it to hotels in Cincinnati and other cities.[18] She also sold the game herself to restaurants and hotels in northern Ohio. Her skill eventually paid off the mortgage on her mother’s farm when Annie was 15.[19]

Debut and marriage[edit]

The Amateur Circus at Nutley(1894) by American illustrator Peter Newell. The scene depicted in the center is of Annie Oakley, standing on horseback, demonstrating her shooting ability.

Annie soon became well known throughout the region. On Thanksgiving Day 1875,[20] the Baughman & Butler shooting act was being performed in Cincinnati.
Traveling show marksman and former dog trainer Frank E. Butler (1847–1926), an Irish immigrant, placed a $100 bet per side (worth $2,181 today) with Cincinnati hotel owner Jack Frost that Butler could beat any local fancy shooter.[21] The hotelier arranged a shooting match between Butler and the 15-year-old Annie, saying, “The last opponent Butler expected was a five-foot-tall 15-year-old girl named Annie.”[20] After missing on his 25th shot, Butler lost the match and the bet. Another account mentions that Butler hit on his last shot, but the bird fell dead about two feet beyond the boundary line.[22] He soon began courting Annie, and they married. They did not have children.[20]
According to a modern-day account in The Cincinnati Enquirer, it is possible that the shooting match may have taken place in 1881 and not 1875.[22] However, it appears the time of the event was never recorded. Biographer Shirl Kasper states the shooting match took place in the spring of 1881 near Greenville, possibly in North Star as mentioned by Butler during interviews in 1903 and 1924. Other sources seem to coincide with the North Fairmount location near Cincinnati if the event occurred in 1881.[22] The Annie Oakley Center Foundation mentions Oakley visiting her married sister, Lydia Stein, at her home near Cincinnati in 1875.[23] That information is incorrect as Lydia didn’t marry Joseph C. Stein until March 19, 1877.[24] Although speculation, it is most likely that Oakley and her mother visited Lydia in 1881 as she was seriously ill from tuberculosis.[25] The Bevis House hotel was still being operated by Martin Bevis and W. H. Ridenour in 1875. It first opened around 1860 after the building was previously used as a pork packaging facility. Jack Frost didn’t obtain management of the hotel until 1879.[22][26] The Baughman & Butler shooting act first appeared on the pages of The Cincinnati Enquirer in 1880. They signed with Sells Brothers Circus in 1881 and made an appearance at the Coliseum Opera House later that year.[22]
Regardless of the actual date of the shooting match, Oakley and Butler were married a year afterward. A certificate is currently on file with the Archives of Ontario, Registration Number 49594, reporting Butler and Oakley being wed on June 20, 1882, in Windsor, Ontario.[27] Many sources say that the marriage took place on August 23, 1876, in Cincinnati,[23] yet there is no recorded certificate to validate that date. A possible reason for the contradicting dates may be that Butler’s divorce from his first wife, Henrietta Saunders, was not yet final in 1876. An 1880 U.S. Federal Census record shows Saunders as married.[28] Sources mentioning Butler’s first wife as Elizabeth are inaccurate; Elizabeth was actually his granddaughter, her father being Edward F. Butler.[29] Throughout Oakley’s show-business career, the public was often led to believe that she was five to six years younger than her actual age. Claiming the later marriage date would have better supported her fictional age.[23]

Career and touring[edit]

“Aim at the high mark and you will hit it. No, not the first time, not the second time and maybe not the third. But keep on aiming and keep on shooting for only practice will make you perfect. Finally you’ll hit the bull’s-eye of success.”

Annie Oakley exhibit at the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame in Fort Worth, Texas

Annie and Frank Butler lived in Cincinnati for a time. Oakley, the stage name she adopted when she and Frank began performing together,[5][30][31] is believed to have been taken from the city’s neighborhood of Oakley, where they resided. Some people believe she took on the name because that was the name of the man who had paid her train fare when she was a child.[23]

Oakley c. 1899

They joined Buffalo Bill’s Wild West in 1885. At five feet tall, Oakley was given the nickname of “Watanya Cicilla” by fellow performer Sitting Bull, rendered “Little Sure Shot” in the public advertisements.
During her first engagement with the Buffalo Bill show, Oakley experienced a tense professional rivalry with rifle sharpshooter Lillian Smith. Smith was eleven years younger than Oakley, age 15 at the time she joined the show in 1886, which may have been a primary reason for Oakley to alter her actual age in later years due to Smith’s press coverage becoming as favorable as hers.[32] Oakley temporarily left the Buffalo Bill show but returned two years later, after Smith departed, in time for the Paris Exposition of 1889.[33] This three-year tour only cemented Oakley as America’s first female star. She earned more than any other performer in the show, except for “Buffalo Bill” Cody himself. She also performed in many shows on the side for extra income.[33]
In Europe, she performed for Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, King Umberto I of Italy, President Marie François Sadi Carnot of France and other crowned heads of state. Oakley supposedly shot the ashes off a cigarette held by the newly crowned German Kaiser Wilhelm II at his request.[34]

Wild West Show poster

From 1892 to 1904, Oakley and Butler made their home in Nutley, New Jersey.[35]
Oakley promoted the service of women in combat operations for the United States armed forces. She wrote a letter to President William McKinley on April 5, 1898, “offering the government the services of a company of 50 ‘lady sharpshooters’ who would provide their own arms and ammunition should the U.S. go to war with Spain.”[36]
The Spanish–American War did occur, but Oakley’s offer was not accepted. Theodore Roosevelt, did, however, name his volunteer cavalry the “Rough Riders” after the “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World” where Oakley was a major star.
The same year that McKinley was fatally shot by an assassin, 1901, Oakley was also badly injured in a train accident, but she recovered after temporary paralysis and five spinal operations. She left the Buffalo Bill show and in 1902 began a quieter acting career in a stage play written especially for her, The Western Girl. Oakley played the role of Nancy Berry and used a pistol, a rifle and rope to outsmart a group of outlaws.[7]
Following her injury and change of career, it only added to her legend that her shooting expertise continued to increase into her 60s.[citation needed]
Throughout her career, it is believed that Oakley taught upwards of 15,000 women how to use a gun. Oakley believed strongly that it was crucial for women to learn how to use a gun, as not only a form of physical and mental exercise, but also to defend themselves.[8] She said: “I would like to see every woman know how to handle guns as naturally as they know how to handle babies.”

Shooting prowess[edit]

Biographers, such as Shirl Kasper, repeat Oakley’s own story about her very first shot at the age of eight. “I saw a squirrel run down over the grass in front of the house, through the orchard and stop on a fence to get a hickory nut.” Taking a rifle from the house, she fired at the squirrel, writing later that, “It was a wonderful shot, going right through the head from side to side”.[37]
The Encyclopædia Britannica notes that:

Oakley never failed to delight her audiences, and her feats of marksmanship were truly incredible. At 30 paces she could split a playing card held edge-on, she hit dimes tossed into the air, she shot cigarettes from her husband’s lips, and, a playing card being thrown into the air, she riddled it before it touched the ground.[38]

R. A. Koestler-Grack reports that, on March 19, 1884, she was being watched by Chief Sitting Bull when:

Oakley playfully skipped on stage, lifted her rifle, and aimed the barrel at a burning candle. In one shot, she snuffed out the flame with a whizzing bullet. Sitting Bull watched her knock corks off of bottles and slice through a cigar Butler held in his teeth.[39]

Libel cases[edit]

In 1904, sensational cocaine prohibition stories were selling well. Newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst published a false story that Oakley had been arrested for stealing to support a cocaine habit. The woman actually arrested was a burlesque performer who told Chicago police that her name was Annie Oakley.
Most of the newspapers that printed the story had relied on the Hearst article, and they immediately retracted it with apologies upon learning of the libelous error. Hearst, however, tried to avoid paying the anticipated court judgments of $20,000 ($533,111 in today’s dollars) by sending an investigator to Darke County, Ohio with the intent of collecting reputation-smearing gossip from Oakley’s past. The investigator found nothing.[40]
Annie Oakley spent much of the next six years winning 54 of 55 libel lawsuits against newspapers. She collected less in judgments than the total of her legal expenses, but she felt that a restored reputation justified the loss of time and money.[40]

Later years and death[edit]

Oakley in 1922

In 1912, the Butlers built a brick ranch-style house in Cambridge, Maryland. It is now known as the Annie Oakley House and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. In 1917, they moved to North Carolina and returned to public life.
She continued to set records into her sixties, and she also engaged in extensive philanthropy for women’s rights and other causes, including the support of young women whom she knew. She embarked on a comeback and intended to star in a feature-length silent movie. She hit 100 clay targets in a row from 16 yards (15 m) at age 62 in a 1922 shooting contest in Pinehurst, North Carolina.[41]
In late 1922, the couple were in a car accident that forced her to wear a steel brace on her right leg. She eventually performed again after more than a year of recovery, and she set records in 1924.[42]
Her health declined in 1925 and she died of pernicious anemia in Greenville, Ohioat the age of 66 on November 3, 1926.[43][44] Her body was cremated in Cincinnati two days later and the ashes buried at Brock Cemetery near Greenville, Ohio.[22][45] Assuming that their marriage took place in 1876, Oakley and Butler had been married just over 50 years.[33]
Butler was so grieved by her death, according to B. Haugen, that he stopped eating and died 18 days later in Michigan, and his body was buried next to Oakley’s ashes.[46].[47] Biographer Shirl Kasper reports that the death certificate said that Butler died of “senility”. One rumor claims that Oakley’s ashes were placed in one of her prized trophies and were laid next to Butler’s body in his coffin prior to burial.[48] Both body and ashes were interred in the cemetery on Thanksgiving day, November 25, 1926.[49]
After her death, her incomplete autobiography was given to stage comedian Fred Stone,[50] and it was discovered that her entire fortune had been spent on her family and her charities.[51]
A vast collection of Annie Oakley’s personal possessions, performance memorabilia, and firearms are on permanent exhibit in the Garst Museum and the National Annie Oakley Center in Greenville, Ohio.[52] She has been inducted into the Trapshooting Hall of Fame, the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame in Fort Worth, Texas, the National Women’s Hall of Fame, the Ohio Women’s Hall of Fame, and the New Jersey Hall of Fame.

The Little Sure Shot of the Wild West[edit]

File:Annie Oakley shooting glass balls, 1894.ogv

Annie Oakley, 1894, an “exhibition of rifle shooting at glass balls, etc.”, in an Edison Kinetoscope movie

Buffalo Bill was friends with Thomas Edison, and Edison built the world’s largest electrical power plant at the time for the Wild West Show.[42] Buffalo Bill and 15 of his show Indians appeared in two Kinetoscopes filmed September 24, 1894.[53]
In 1894, Oakley and Butler performed in Edison’s Kinetoscope film The “Little Sure Shot of the Wild West,” an exhibition of rifle shooting at glass balls, etc.[54]which was filmed November 1, 1894 in Edison’s Black Maria studio by William Heise.[55][56] It was the eleventh film made after commercial showings began on April 14, 1894.[57]

Surname[edit]

There are a number of variations given for Oakley’s family name, Mosey. Many biographers and other references give the name as “Moses”.[58] Although the 1860 U.S. Census shows the family name as “Mauzy”, this is considered an error introduced by the census taker.[59][60] Oakley’s name appears as “Ann Mosey” in the 1870 U.S. Census[15][16] and “Mosey” is engraved on her father’s headstone and appears in his military record; “Mosey” is the official spelling by the Annie Oakley Foundation, maintained by her living relatives.[3][5][61] The spelling “Mosie” has also appeared.
According to biographer Shirl Kasper, Oakley herself insisted that her family surname be spelled “Mozee”, leading to arguments with her brother, John. Kasper speculates that Oakley may have considered “Mozee” to be a more phonetic spelling. There is also popular speculation that young Oakley had been teased about her name by other children.[60]
Prior to their double wedding in March 1884, both Oakley’s brother, John, and one of her sisters, Hulda, changed their surnames to “Moses”.[3][61]

Eponym[edit]

During her lifetime, the theatre business began referring to complimentary tickets as “Annie Oakleys”. Such tickets traditionally have holes punched into them (to prevent them from being resold), reminiscent of the playing cards Oakley shot through during her sharpshooting act.

Representations on stage, literature and screen[edit]

Influence[edit]

Oakley’s worldwide stardom as a sharpshooter enabled her to earn more money than most of the other performers in the Buffalo Bill show.[33] She did not forget her roots after gaining financial and economic power. She and Butler together often donated to charitable organizations for orphans.[33] Beyond her monetary influence, she proved to be a great influence on women.
Oakley urged that women serve in war, though President McKinley rejected her offer of woman sharpshooters for service in the Spanish–American War.[36] Beyond this offer to the president, Oakley believed that women should learn to use a gun for the empowering image that it gave.[63] Laura Browder discusses how Oakley’s stardom gave hope to women and youth in Her Best Shot: Women and Guns In America. Oakley pressed for women to be independent and educated.[63]She was a key influence in the creation of the image of the American cowgirl. Through this image, she provided substantial evidence that women are as capable as men when offered the opportunity to prove themselves.
Image result for Oakley supposedly shot the ashes off a cigarette held by the newly crowned German Kaiser Wilhelm II at his request.

Categories
All About Guns

The M-14 Rifle

Image result for the m-14 rifle
Related image
So far I have been able to shoot the civilian model of the M-14 i.e The M-1a.  (Since the Army had “retired” the m-14 before I showed up at Ft. Dix.)
Now frankly I had put off getting one. Because of the huge price tag on it. But due to a very nice raise* I got due to the election of a certain Governor of California.
Here is what I found out. That putting the magazine into it. Is not the same as my the Ak-47. It took me a while & the Range Master on how to do it properly. The video below will help explain it better than I could.
Now let us move on to how the Rifle functioned. When I first used the iron sights. I frankly was very disappointed at my score. Granted I am not Annie Oakley. But I thought it could do better.
Image result for Annie Oakley
But then I had a stroke of luck! I got my hands on the scope mount for it. That and I had a spare High End Scope that was unemployed.
Now as my Dear Dad would say. “This is cooking with gas!” As my scores quickly helped massaged my battered ego. Since I started shooting patterns of a inch or so at a 100 yards.
Image result for the m-1a scope mount
Image result for the m-14  main battle rifle memes humor
So I recommend this rifle? I give it a qualified yes. The only issue is the initial high price for this rifle. Otherwise I have nothing really to complain about it .

 

 

Here is some more technical information about America’s Last Main Battle Rifle

M14 rifle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rifle, 7.62 mm, M14
M14 rifle - USA - 7,62x51mm - Armémuseum.jpg
Type Battle rifleautomatic riflesniper rifledesignated marksman rifle
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1959–present
(in limited service since 1964)
Used by See Users
Wars See Conflicts
Production history
Designed 1954
Manufacturer Springfield Armory
Norinco
Produced 1959–1964[1][2]
No. built 1.3 million[3]
Variants M14E1M14E2/M14A1M14KM21M25Mk 14 EBRM1A rifle
Specifications
Weight 9.2 lb (4.1 kg) empty
10.7 lb (5.2 kg) w/ loaded magazine
Length 44.3 in (1,126 mm)
Barrel length 22 in (559 mm)

Cartridge 7.62×51mm NATO (.308 win)
Action Gas-operatedrotating bolt
Rate of fire 700–750 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity 850 m/s (2,800 ft/s)
Effective firing range 460 m (500 yd)[4]
800+ m (875+ yd) (with optics)
Feed system 20-round detachable box magazine
Sights Aperture rear sight, “barleycorn” front sight

The M14 rifle, officially the United States Rifle, 7.62 mm, M14,[5] is an American selective fire automatic rifle that fires 7.62×51mm NATO(.308 in) ammunition. It gradually replaced the M1 Garand rifle in U.S. Army service by 1961 and in U.S. Marine Corps service by 1965. It was the standard issue infantry rifle for U.S. military personnel in the contiguous United States, Europe, and South Korea from 1959[6] until the M16 rifle began replacing it in 1964. The M14 was used for U.S. Army, Navy and Marine Corps basic and advanced individual training (AIT) from the mid-1960s to the early 1970s.
The M14 was the last American battle rifle issued in quantity to U.S. military personnel. The rifle remains in limited service in all branches of the U.S. military as an accurized competition weapon, a ceremonial weapon by honor guardscolor guardsdrill teams, and ceremonial guards, and sniper rifle/designated marksman rifle. Civilians models in semi-automatic are used for hunting, plinking, target shooting and competitions including metallic silhouette, 3 gun and metal challenge.
The M14 is the basis for the M21[7] and M25 sniper rifles which were largely replaced by the M24 Sniper Weapon System.[8] A new variant of the M14, the Mk 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle has been in service since 2002.[9]

History

Early development

The M14 was developed from a long line of experimental weapons based upon the M1 rifle. Although the M1 was among the most advanced infantry rifles of the late 1930s, it was not an ideal weapon. Modifications were already beginning to be made to the basic M1 rifle’s design during the last months of World War II. Changes included adding fully automatic firing capability and replacing the eight-round en bloc clips with a detachable box magazine holding 20 rounds. WinchesterRemington, and Springfield Armory‘s own John Garand offered different conversions. Garand’s design, the T20, was the most popular, and T20 prototypes served as the basis for a number of Springfield test rifles from 1945 through the early 1950s.[10]

T25 prototype

In 1945, Earle Harvey of Springfield Armory designed a completely different rifle, the T25, for the new T65 .30 light rifle cartridge [7.62×49mm] at the direction of Col. Rene Studler, then serving in the Pentagon.[11] The two men were transferred to Springfield Armory in late 1945, where work on the T25 continued.[11] The T25 was designed to use the T65 service cartridge, a Frankford Arsenal design based upon .30-06 cartridge case used in the M1 service rifle, but shortened to the length of the .300 Savage case.[11] Although shorter than the .30-06, with less powder capacity, the T65 cartridge retained the ballistics and energy of the .30-06 due to the use of a recently developed ball powder made by Olin Industries.[11][12] After experimenting with several bullet designs, the T65 was finalized for adoption as the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge.[11] Olin Industries later introduced the cartridge on the commercial market as the .308 Winchester.[11] After a series of revisions by Earle Harvey and other members of the .30 light rifle design group following the 1950 Fort Benning tests, the T25 was renamed the T47.[11]
In contrast, the T44 prototype service rifle was not principally designed by any single engineer at Springfield Armory, but rather was a conventional design developed on a shoestring budget as an alternative to the T47.[11] With only minimal funds available, the earliest T44 prototypes simply used T20E2 receivers fitted with magazine filler blocks and re-barreled for 7.62×51mm NATO, with the long operating rod/piston of the M1 replaced by the T47’s gas cut-off system.[11] Lloyd Corbett, an engineer in Harvey’s rifle design group, added various refinements to the T44 design, including a straight operating rod and a bolt roller to reduce friction.[11]

Infantry Board service rifle trials

Experimental T47 rifle

The T44 participated in a competitive service rifle competition conducted by the Infantry Board at Fort Benning, Georgia against the Springfield T47 (a modified T25) and the T48, a variant of Fabrique Nationale‘s FN FAL (from “Fusil Automatique Leger”, French for “light automatic rifle”).[13] The T47, which did not have a bolt roller and performed worse in dust and cold weather tests than both the T44 and the T48, was dropped from consideration in 1953.[11] During 1952–53, testing proved the T48 and the T44 roughly comparable in performance, with the T48 holding an advantage in ease of field stripping and dust resistance, as well as a longer product development lead time.[11][13] A Newsweek article in July 1953 hinted that the T48/FAL might be selected over the T44.[11][14] During the winter of 1953–54, both rifles competed in the winter rifle trials at U.S. Army facilities in the Arctic.[13][15] Springfield Armory engineers, anxious to ensure the selection of the T44, had been specially preparing and modifying the test T44 rifles for weeks with the aid of the armory’s cold chamber, including redesign of the T44 gas regulator and custom modifications to magazines and other parts to reduce friction and seizing in extreme cold.[13][15] The T48 rifles received no such special preparation, and in the continued cold weather testing began to experience sluggish gas system functioning, aggravated by the T48’s close-fitting surfaces between bolt and carrier, and carrier and receiver.[11][13][15] FN engineers opened the gas ports in an attempt to improve functioning, but this caused early/violent extraction and broken parts as a result of the increased pressures.[11][13][15] As a result, the T44 was ranked superior in cold weather operation to the T48.[13] The Arctic Test Board report made it clear that the T48 needed improvement and that the U.S. would not adopt the T48 until it had successfully completed another round of Arctic tests the following winter.[11][13]
In June 1954, funding was finally made available to manufacture newly fabricated T44 receivers specially designed for the shorter T65 cartridge.[11] This one change to the T44 design saved a pound in rifle weight over that of the M1 Garand.[11]Tests at Fort Benning with the T44 and T48 continued through the summer and fall of 1956.[11] By this time, the T48/FAL rifles had been so improved that malfunction rates were almost as low as the T44.[11]
In the end, the T44 was selected over the T48/FAL primarily because of weight (T44 was a pound lighter), simplicity with fewer parts, the T44’s self-compensating gas system, and the argument that the T44 could be manufactured on existing machinery built for the M1 rifle (this later turned out to be unworkable).[11][13][15][16] In 1957, the U.S. formally adopted the T44 as the U.S. infantry service rifle, designated M14.[11]

Production contracts

Initial production contracts for the M14 were awarded to the Springfield ArmoryWinchester, and Harrington & Richardson.[17] Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Inc. (TRW) would later be awarded a production contract for the rifle as well.[17] 1,376,031 M14 service rifles were produced from 1959 to 1964.[17]

National Match M14

Springfield Armory produced 6,641 new M14 NM rifles in 1962 and 1963, while TRW produced 4,874 new M14 NM rifles in 1964.[17] Springfield Armory later upgraded 2,094 M14 rifles in 1965 and 2,395 M14 rifles in 1966 to National Match specifications, while 2,462 M14 rifles were rebuilt to National Match standards in 1967 at the Rock Island Arsenal.[17] A total of 11,130 National Match rifles were delivered by Springfield Armory, Rock Island Arsenal, and TRW during 1962–1967.[17]
Production M14 rifles made by Springfield Armory and Winchester used forged receivers and bolts milled from AISI 8620 steel, a low-carbon molybdenum-chromium steel.[17] Harrington & Richardson M14 production used AISI 8620 steel as well, except for ten receivers milled from AISI 1330 low-carbon steel and a single receiver made from alloy steel with a high nickel content.[17]

Deployment

A U.S. soldier with an M14 watches as supplies are dropped in 1967 during the Vietnam War.

After the M14’s adoption, Springfield Armory began tooling a new production line in 1958, delivering the first service rifles to the U.S. Army in July 1959. However, long production delays resulted in the 101st Airborne Division being the only unit in the army fully equipped with the M14 by the end of 1961. The Fleet Marine Force finally completed the change from M1 to M14 in late 1962. Springfield Armory records reflect that M14 manufacture ended as TRW, fulfilling its second contract, delivered its final production increment in fiscal year 1965 (1 July 1964 – 30 June 1965). The Springfield archive also indicates the 1.38 million rifles were acquired for just over $143 million, for a unit cost of about $104.[1][2]
The rifle served adequately during its brief tour of duty in Vietnam.[18] Though it was unwieldy in the thick brush due to its length and weight, the power of the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge allowed it to penetrate cover quite well and reach out to extended range, developing 2,560 ft·lbf (3,463 J) of muzzle energy. However, there were several drawbacks to the M14. The traditional wood stock of the rifle had a tendency to swell and expand in the heavy moisture of the jungle, adversely affecting accuracy. Fiberglass stocks were produced to resolve this problem, but the rifle was discontinued before very many could be distributed for field use. Also, because of the M14’s powerful 7.62×51mm cartridge, the weapon was deemed virtually uncontrollable in fully automatic mode, so most M14s were permanently set to semi-automatic fire only to avoid wasting ammunition in combat.[19][20][21]

A rare M14 presentation model, serial No. 0010

The M14 was developed to replace seven different weapons—the M1 Garand, Springfield M1903, Enfield M1917, M1 carbineM3 Grease Gun, Thompson M1928/M1, and M1918 Browning automatic rifle (BAR). The intention was to simplify the logistical requirements of the troops by limiting the types of ammunition and parts needed to be supplied. However, it proved to be an impossible task to replace all four. The M14 was also deemed “completely inferior” to the World War II M1 Garand in a September 1962 report by the U.S. Department of Defense comptroller.[22] The cartridge was too powerful for the submachine gun role and the weapon was simply too light to serve as a light machine gun replacement for the BAR.[23]

Replacement

The M14 remained the primary infantry rifle in Vietnam until it was replaced by the M16 in 1966–67, though combat engineer units kept them several years longer. Further procurement of the M14 was abruptly halted in late 1963 due to the U.S. Department of Defense report which had also stated that the AR-15 (soon to be M16) was superior to the M14. (The DOD did not cancel FY 1963 orders not yet delivered.) After the report, a series of tests and reports by the U.S. Department of the Army followed that resulted in the decision to cancel the M14.[22] The M16 was then ordered as a replacement for the M14 by direction of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in 1964, over the objection of the U.S. Army officers who had backed the M14. (Other factions within the Army research and development community had opposed the M14 and the 7.62×51 mm round from the start.) Though production of the M14 was officially discontinued, some disgruntled troops managed to hang on to them while deriding the early model M16 as a frail and under-powered “Mattel toy”[24] that was prone to jam. In late 1967, the U.S. Army designated the M16 as the “Standard A” rifle, and the M14 became a “Limited Standard” weapon. The M14 rifle remained the standard rifle for U.S. Army Basic Training and troops stationed in Europe until 1970.[25]
The U.S. Army also converted several thousand M14s into M21 sniper rifles, which remained standard issue for this purpose until the adoption of the M24 SWS in 1988.
In 1969, tooling for the M14 was sold to Taiwan and later many rifles were exported to Baltic countries and Israel.[26][verification needed]

Post-1970 U.S. military service

An Army marksman in Fallujah, Iraq, using an M14 with a Leupold LR/T 10×40 mm M3 scope

In the mid-1990s, the Marine Corps chose a new rifle for Designated Marksman (sniper) use, an M14 modified by the Precision Weapons Shop in Marine Corps Base Quantico called the Designated Marksman Rifle (DMR). It is intended for use by security teams (SRTsFAST companies), and Marine Scout Snipers in the cases where a semi-automatic rifle would be more appropriate than the standard bolt-action M40A1/A3 rifle. The USMC Rifle Team uses the M14 in shooting competitions. Although the M14 was phased out as the standard-issue rifle by 1970, M14 variants are still used by various branches of the U.S. Military as well as other armed forces, especially as a sniper rifle and as a designated marksman rifle, due to its accuracy and effectiveness at long range. Special active units such as the OPFOR units of the Joint Readiness Training Center use M14s. Few M14s were in use in the Army until the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. Since the start of these conflicts, many M14s have been employed as designated marksman and sniper rifles. These are not M21 rifles, but original production M14s. Common modifications include scopes, fiberglass stocks, and other accessories.[27] A 2009 study conducted by the U.S. Army claimed that half of the engagements in Afghanistan occurred from beyond 300 meters (330 yd).[28] America’s 5.56×45mm NATO service rifles are ineffective at these ranges; this has prompted the reissue of thousands of M14s.[29]

Gunner’s Mate using an M14 rifle to fire a shot line from the USS Carter Hall to USNS Lewis and Clark.

The 1st Battalion of the 3rd United States Infantry Regiment (“The Old Guard”) in the Military District of Washington is the sole remaining regular U.S. Army combat field unit where the M14 is still issued as the standard rifle, along with a chromed bayonet and an extra wooden stock with white sling for military funerals, parades, and other ceremonies. The United States Air Force Honor Guard uses a version of the M14.[30] The U.S. Navy Ceremonial Guard and Base Honor Guards also use the M14 for 3-volley salutes in military funerals. It is also the drill and parade rifle of the United States Military AcademyUnited States Naval AcademyUnited States Air Force AcademyThe CitadelNorwich UniversityVirginia Military Institute, and North Georgia College and State University.[31] U.S. Navy ships carry several M14s in their armories. They are issued to sailors going on watch out on deck in port, and to Backup Alert Forces. The M14 is also used to shoot a large rubber projectile to another ship when underway to start the lines over for alongside refueling and replenishment.[32]

A SEAL operator with an M14 rifle participating in maritime interdiction enforcement during Operation Desert Storm.

Various sniper variants have been used by the United States Navy SEALs, often mistaken with M21 in the overt literature, only one of them has received a standard name in the U.S. military designations system: the M25, developed by the Special Forces. SEALs also use the Mk 14 Mod 0 Enhanced Battle Rifle (EBR) for close-quarters battle and in a designated marksman role. “Delta Force” units are known to have used M14 sniper variants. According to Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, the well-known account of the Battle of Mogadishu, Sergeant First Class Randy Shughart, used an M14 for sniping from helicopters to provide support fire to ground troops.[33]
The U.S. Army Special Forces (“Green Berets”) have made some use of the M25 “spotter rifle”. The M25 was developed in the late 1980s within the 10th Special Forces Group, which was charged to support Special Forces sniper weapons as well as the Special Operations Target Interdiction Course (SOTIC). The M25 was first planned as a replacement for the old M21, but after the Army adoption of the M24 SWS as its standard sniper rifle, the M25 was intended to be used by spotters of the sniper teams, while the snipers would use the bolt-action M24.
The M14 has remained in service longer than any U.S. infantry rifle surpassing that of the Springfield M1903 rifle, it also holds the distinction of serving as the standard infantry rifle of the U.S. Army for a second shortest span of time than almost any other service rifle, only surpassed by the short lived US Krag–Jørgensen rifles and carbines.[34]

Service with other nations

The Philippines issues M14 rifles, M1/M2 carbines, M1 rifles, and M16 rifles, to their civilian defense forces and various cadet corps service academies. The Hellenic Navy uses the M14.
The M14 production Springfield tooling and assembly line was sold in 1967 to the Republic of China (Taiwan), who in 1968 began producing their Type 57 Rifle. The State Arsenal of the Republic of China produced over 1 million of these rifles from 1969 to the present. Other than the surface finish it is essentially a US rifle. It is used by the reserves and as a backup defense weapon, and used by airport guards.
In Mainland China, Norinco has produced an M14 variants for export, which were sold in the U.S. prior to the importation ban of 1989 and the enactment of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. Rifles made by Poly Technologies were imported to the US in the 1980s but were banned from further import in 1989 by the first Bush Administration.[35] They are currently being sold in Canada, Italy and New Zealand.[36] They have been marketed under the M14S[37] and M305[38] names.

Rifle design

Receiver markings

Stamped into receiver heel:

  • U.S. Rifle
  • 7.62-MM M14
  • Springfield Armory (or commercial contractor name)
  • Serial number

Stock

M14 with magazine

The M14 rifle was first furnished with a walnut stock, then with birch and finally with a synthetic (fiberglass) stock, which was adopted for use in damp jungle environments in Vietnam, since the wood versions would often become warped and swollen with moisture. The stock was also fitted with a hinged shoulder rest for improved user comfort when firing from a prone position.[39] Original equipment walnut and birch stocks carry the Department of Defense acceptance stamp or cartouche (an arc of three stars above a spread-winged eagle). These stocks also carried a proof stamp, a P within a circle, applied after successful test-firing.
Rifles manufactured through late 1960 were provided with walnut handguards. Thereafter synthetic, slotted (ventilated) hand guards were furnished but proved too fragile for military use. These were replaced by the solid synthetic part still in use, usually in dark brown, black or a camouflage pattern.

Rifling

Standard M14 rifling has right-hand twist in 1:12 inches with 4 grooves.

Accessories

Although M14 rifle production ended in 1964, the limited standard status of the weapon resulted in the continued manufacture of accessories and spare parts into the late 1960s and beyond.

  • M6 bayonet with M8A1 sheath
  • M2 Bandoleer (Has 6 pockets, each containing 2 × 5-round Mauser-type clips for a total of 60 rounds, and a pouch for a magazine filler. The sling was adjustable and was held in place with a matte-black steel safety pin). Standard Operating Procedure was for the operator to use up the ammunition in the bandoleers before using the loaded magazines in the ammo pouches. The pockets’ stitching could be ripped out to allow the bandoleer to carry 6 pre-loaded 20-round magazines.
  • Sling [The service rifle used a one-piece cotton or nylon webbing sling and the competition and sniping variants use the standard M1907 two-piece leather sling]
  • Cleaning kit (contained in the stock’s butt-trap) included: a combination tool, ratchet chamber brush, plastic lubricant case, brass bore brush, four cleaning rod sections, cleaning rod case, and a cleaning rod patch-holding tip.
  • M5 winter trigger and winter safety
  • M12 blank firing attachment and M3 breech shield
  • Cartridge charger clip (holds five cartridges)
  • Magazine filler (or “spoon”) for charging detached magazines externally. (The M14 has a groove over the action that allows the operator to place a loaded clip and top off the attached magazine internally through the open action).
  • M1956 Universal Small Arms Ammunition Pouch, First Pattern (could hold 2 × 20-round M14 magazines horizontally).
  • M1956 Universal Small Arms Ammunition Pouch, Second Pattern (could hold 3 × 20-round M14 magazines vertically).
  • M1961 ammunition magazine pouch. (Could carry 1 × 20-round M14 magazine. The bottom of the pouch contained eyelets for attaching a First Aid Pouch or 3-cell (6 pocket) Grenade Carrier that could tie down around the thigh.)
  • M2 bipod
  • M76 rifle grenade launcher
  • M15 grenade launcher sight
  • Mk 87 Mod 0/1 line (rope) throwing kit

Types of sights

  • Rear peep, front blade, metric
  • Rear National Match peep with hood, front National Match blade, metric

Variants and related designs

A U.S. Border Patrol Agent, armed with a M14 rifle, tracking someone in harsh winter conditions on the northern U.S. border.

Military

M15

The M15 Squad Automatic Weapon was a modified M14 developed as a replacement for the .30-06 M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle for use as a squad automatic weapon. It added a heavier barrel and stock, a hinged buttplate, a selector switch for fully automatic fire, and a bipod. The sling was from the BAR. Like the M14, it was chambered for 7.62×51mm NATO.
Firing tests showed that the M14, when equipped with the selector switch, hinged buttplate and bipod, performed as well as the M15. As a result, the M15 was dropped and the modified M14 became the squad automatic weapon. Accuracy and control problems with this variant led to the addition of a pistol grip, a folding rubber covered metal foregrip and a muzzle stabilizer. However, it was a poor suppressive fire weapon owing to 20-round magazines and it overheated rapidly.

M14E1

The M14E1 was tested with a variety of folding stocks to provide better maneuverability for armored infantry, paratroopers and others. No variant was standardized.

M14E2/M14A1

Selective fire version of the standard M14 used as a squad automatic weapon. Successor to the full-automatic M14 with a bipod and the never issued M15. The developmental model was known as the M14E2. As a conceptional weapon developed by the Infantry School, it was known as the M14 (USAIB) (United States Army Infantry Board). It was issued in 1963 and redesignated as M14A1 in 1966.
It had a full pistol-gripped in-line stock to control recoil, a plastic upper forend to save weight, a muzzle compensator, the BAR sling, an M2 bipod, and a folding metal vertical foregrip mounted under the forend of the stock. Although an improvement over the M14 when in full-auto, it was still difficult to control, overheated rapidly, and the 20-round magazine limited its ability to deliver suppressive fire.

M14M (Modified)/M14NM (National Match)

The M14M is a semi-automatic only version of the standard M14 that was developed for use in civilian rifle marksmanship activities such as the Civilian Marksmanship Program. M14M rifles were converted from existing M14 rifles by welding the select-fire mechanism to prevent full-automatic firing. The M14NM (National Match) is an M14M rifle built to National Match accuracy standards.
The M14M and M14NM rifles are described in a (now-obsolete) Army regulation, AR 920-25, “Rifles, M14M and M14NM, For Civilian Marksmanship Use,” dated 8 February 1965. Paragraph 2, among other things, stated that the Director of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Division, Internal Revenue ServiceDepartment of the Treasury (predecessor to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives) had ruled that M14M and M14NM rifles so modified would not be subject to the 1934 National Firearms Act (NFA) and, as such, could be sold or issued to civilians. However, with the passage of the Gun Control Act of 1968, the NFA was amended to prohibit sales of previously modified automatic weapons such as the M14M and M14NM to civilians.

M14 SMUD

Stand-off Munition Disruption, used by Explosive Ordnance Disposal personnel to destroy unexploded ordnance. Essentially an M14 National Match rifle with scope.

Mk 14 EBR

A soldier using a M14 EBR-RIequipped with a Sage M14ALCS chassis stock provides security in Iraq, 2006.

The Mk 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle is a more tactical version of the M14, with a shorter 18-inch barrel, a retractable stock and multiple rails for more accessories.

M14 Tactical

Modified M14 using the same stock as the Mk 14 but with a 22-inch barrel and a Smith Enterprise muzzle brake, used by the U.S. Coast Guard.

M14 Designated Marksman Rifle

Designated marksman version of the M14, used by the U.S. Marine Corps. Replaced by the M39 Enhanced Marksman Rifle.

M39 Enhanced Marksman Rifle

Modified M14 DMR fitted with the same stock as Mk 14, used by the U.S. Marine Corps. Being replaced by the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System.[40]

M89SR Model 89 Sniper Rifle

The M89SR is an M14 in bullpup configuration first introduced by Sardius in the 1980s. Later produced by Technical Equipment International (TEI) for the Israel Defense Forces

AWC G2A Sniper Rifle

AWC G2A Sniper Rifle is a modified M14 with bullpup stock designed by Lynn McWilliams and Gale McMillian in the late 1990s. Produced and delivered for testing at the Fort Bragg sniper school.

M21, M25 sniper rifles

The M21 and M25 are accurized sniper rifle versions, built to closer tolerances than the standard M14. These are the more standard sniper rifle variants of the M14.

Commercial production

U.S. Border Patrol Agent with M14 during a law enforcement memorial service

Armscorp M14

From 1987 to 1994, Armscorp of America or Armscorp USA produced investment-cast semi-auto M14 receivers. During the first year of production, Armscorp receivers were supplied by Smith Manufacturing of Holland, Ohio, which were heat treated and finish machined by Armscorp. From 1988 to 1994, a few receivers with an ‘S’ serial number prefix were made of stainless steel. From approximately 1994 until 2008, Armscorps receiver castings were supplied by the Lamothermic Corporation of Brewster, New York.

CAR 14

A product of Troy Industries the CAR 14 (Carbine Assault Rifle 14) is a smaller and lighter tactical version of the M14. Its barrel is 12.5 inches long and it weighs 7.9 pounds. The rifle has select fire ability, a threaded flash suppressor for a suppressor, a tactical rail on top for sights and other attachments, and the operating rod cover.[citation needed]

Federal Ordnance

From 1984 to 1991, Federal Ordnance of South El Monte, California sold a semi-auto version of the M14 rifle.[41] Initially named the M14 or M14A, the rifle utilized an aftermarket semi-auto receiver fitted with surplus USGI M14 parts.[41] All receivers were machined from castings of AISI 8620 alloy steel. Except for the first fifty receivers, the castings were supplied by Electro Crisol Metal, S.A. of Santander, Spain, then imported to the US for heat treatment, finish machining, and exterior phosphate treatment. M14 and M14A receivers were heat-treated using the carburizing process by a firm in Santa Ana, California, followed by finish machining on a CNC machine at Federal Ordnance in South El Monte.[41] Federal Ordnance M14 and M14A receivers were heat-treated and carburized according to USGI M14 requirements.[41] Each completed production rifle was proof fired, then tested for functioning by firing three rounds.[41] USGI parts and bolts were used extensively in Federal Ordnance rifles through at least serial number 88XX.[41] In 1989, Federal Ordnance renamed the rifle the M14SA and M14CSA. Rifles in the 93XX serial range and higher have modified receivers designed to accept Chinese-made bolts, barrels, and other parts owing to a shortage of original USGI components.[41] Approximately 51,000 complete Federal Ordnance M14 rifles and 60,000 or more receivers were manufactured before production was halted in late 1991.[41]

La France Specialties M14K

The M14K is a commercial version of the M14 designed and built by Timothy F. LaFrance of La France Specialties of San Diego, California, most using forged receivers produced by Smith Enterprise of Tempe, Arizona. This rifle has a custom-made short barrel with a custom-made flash suppressor, shortened operating rod, and employs a unique gas tube system. Fully automatic versions have a removable flash suppressor. Semi-automatic versions (of which very few were made) have a silver-brazed flash hider to comply with the requirement that Title I firearms have a 16″ barrel. Most M14Ks employ the M60 gas tube system. Some late-model M14Ks employ a custom-designed and manufactured gas system. Both are intended to control the rate of fire in fully automatic mode. The rear sight is a custom-made National Match type aperture, and the front sight is a custom-made narrow blade, wing-protected sight to take advantage of the additional accuracy afforded by the special barrel.
The stocks and handguards on M14Ks are shortened versions of the GI birch or walnut stock, but make use of the original front ferrule. The front sling mount is relocated slightly to rear, to accommodate the shortened stock. Most handguards are of the solid, fiberglass variety (albeit shortened), but a limited number were made with shortened wood handguards. The steel buttplate was deleted in favor of a rubber recoil pad, which greatly reduces perceived recoil. A limited number of M14Ks were manufactured with the BM-59 Alpine / Para folding stock. These too had the shortened stocks and handguards, making for an extremely compact package especially suited to vehicular and airborne operations. A couple of M14Ks were built for SEAL Team members using the tubular folding stock assembly on a cut-down M14E2 stock found on some of the Team’s full-size M14s prior to adoption of the Sage International EBR stock for M14 applications. These are by far one of the rarest variants of the M14K.

Norinco

The Chinese firm Norinco manufactures two versions of the M14 rifle known as the M14S or M305.[42] These rifles have been banned from importation (1989 for all Polytech rifles) and (1994 for Norinco rifles) to the U.S., due to a Clinton era prohibition on Chinese made firearms. They are commonly sold and are popular in Canada for hunting and target shooting.

Polytech Industries

Polytech Industries of China made an unlicensed version of the M14 rifle known as the M14S. Polytechs, unlike Norinco rifles, were all banned in the 1989 firearm importation ban by the President George HW Bush administration.[43]

Smith Enterprise, Inc

Smith Enterprise Inc. was founded as Western Ordnance in 1979 by Richard Smith in Mesa, Arizona and the company made numerous types of rifles, but specialized in the M1 Garand and M14.[44] In 1993, Western Ordnance reformed as Smith Enterprise and has built and rebuilt numerous M14 rifles for the US Military and the militaries of Colombia, Canada and other nations.[45][46]
The U.S. Department of Defense has contracted Smith Enterprise to build and modify M14 rifles for use by soldiers, Marines and sailors in Iraq and Afghanistan.[47] Smith Enterprise played a major part in the M14 rifle modernization projects for various US military units which resulted in the development of the U.S. Navy Mark 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle.[45][48][49] The company’s history included originally making forged receivers for M14 rifles and briefly switching to investment casting.[44] Smith stopped making receivers for a few years, but reentered the market with receivers machined from bar stock in 2002.[45]
In 2003 Smith Enterprise Inc. created its version of the M14 Enhanced Battle Rifle known as the MK14 Mod 0, type SEI. The rifle used a medium heavy weight 18.0″ barrel and was used as a basis to create the US Navy’s Mark 14 Mod 0 with Springfield Armory, Inc. being tasked to supply the necessary machinery in cooperation with the Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division.[45] SEI builds an improved M14 gas cylinder as a component of their specialized rifles and a part for the military to upgrade older rifles. The gas cylinder is assigned the NATO Stock Number: NSN 1005-00-790-8766.[50]

Springfield Armory

Springfield Armory, Inc. of Geneseo, Ill., produces a semi-automatic-only version of the M14 rifle. The standard rifle is known as the M1A. The company produces several variations of the basic rifle with different stocks, barrel weights, barrel lengths, and other optional features. The Springfield M1A and its model variants have been widely distributed in the U.S. civilian market and have seen use by various law enforcement agencies in the U.S. Springfield Armory, Inc. also produce the SOCOM series and the Scout Squad Rifle, based on the short-barreled version of the M14. The SOCOM 16 comes with provisions to mount a red dot sight and the SOCOM II adds railed handguards to the package. Springfield Armory’s M21 tactical is a civilian version of the M21 Sniper Weapon System currently in use by the U.S. military.[51]

Gallery

Conflicts

The M14 rifle has been used in the following conflicts:

Users

 
 
*A Bribe to vote the straight party (D) ticket. Sorry Old Boy but it would take a lot more than that. For me to do something as horrific like that.
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Categories
Gear & Stuff

Bayonets!

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Recruit. “EXCUSE ME, SIR, BUT HAVE THE GERMANS THE SAME METHODS IN BAYONET-FIGHTING AS WE HAVE?” Instructor. “LET’S HOPE SO. IT’S YOUR ONLY CHANCE.”

 
Yeah, you know! Those sharp things that you stick on a fighting man’s rifle. Which is mostly used today to open your rations like the MRE in the field.
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  That thing, right? Okay lets us get serious now folks.
The Bayonet has been basically around for a little under 400 years. Legend say that it was invented in Bayonne France, Hence the name bayonet.
  Back in those bad old days. After you got conned into enlisting for LIFE for the local tyrant! You were issued a muzzle loading musket. Which if you were any good at reloading it. You might get 3 round a minute off.
  But the muskets were generally very inaccurate and prone to misfire if the loading drill was done wrong. Or if your powder got wet. Or if some blood thirsty idiot had snuck up on you. You then Troop had a problem! You get the picture.
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  Or if the other side was on the ball. They would launch a Cavalry attack. Which could wipe out your unit in sometimes minutes. Especially if your pikemen were asleep or had run off.
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  “Well this would not do!” as my Old Sgt. Major would say. So some bright soul came up with the idea of the plug bayonet.
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What you would then do is stuff the dull end into your musket barrel . Then you would look like this then.
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The only problem is pulling the damn thing out later on to start shooting again. “Well that needs a bit more thought & work!” You would think.
  So the R&D boys went to work on it.
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From whose  labors came this bright idea. The Socket Bayonet or the Knife Bayonet.
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  Which was basically attached to the barrel of your musket. That all in all, worked out pretty good for about 200 years.
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  It was also found to be useful for Crowd or Riot Control. Since most Folks rightfully have a fear of cold steel. That and the pissed off trooper behind it for some reason. Plus the Army for some reason. Does not like shooting taxpayers.
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  But this all can to a slow stop with the American Civil War and the rise of the Rifle.
  Since now a unit could start killing folks at a 800 yard distance with gun fire. That and keep repeating accurately firing a couple of times in a minute.
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  So it became mighty hard for the Snuffies to now close with cold steel only. Most of the time. The bayonet charge would usually just peter out into a firefight between groups of skirmishers.
(Nobody can run that fast enough!)
 It then even got worse with the introduction of the Machine Gun and Barbed Wire.
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  As a matter of fact. The just about only Guy killed in WWI by a blade was in the First World War. Who was killed in the opening days of the War just before the Battle of Mons by a Sabre. At least that is from what I read so far about it.
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Now a days, bayonets are basically just for show. That and they help justify doing rifle drills. Which is used in order to get a recruit into shape and instill a killer attitude. (Most troops hate doing it by the way.)
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Bayonet training in the Wehrmacht, 1942. Bundesarchiv
  This guy if he did not make thru WWII. He probably died either from small arms fire. That or from Artillery fire, if not then from bad treatment as a Soviet POW. But not very likely in a knife fight.
Below is a couple of videos about the last real use of bayonets being used in WWI. It is about the Light Horse in the Holy Land. (It’s a great film by the way. Especially the final charge scene)
https://youtu.be/NgHC25ubiQU
https://youtu.be/6liLYcrlSBw
https://youtu.be/3C2elnoe3Sg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wk61KSiMQ0A
https://youtu.be/M9TLLLdAqns
https://youtu.be/w88GP7iKLZ4
Other information

Bayonet Fighting


it was during the 17th Century that musketeers turned pikemen.  The style of warfare at that time had separate units of musketeers and pikemen.  Someone had the idea to fit a knife to the front of a musket, turning it into a short pike.  The original bayonet was a “plug” type whose handle went right into the muzzle of the musket.  Later types would fit alongside the barrel by a variety of sockets, plugs and clips.
There is more to bayonets than picking up a bayonetted rifle and poking the enemy with it.  There are actually techniques for its use.  These vary by time and country.  Perhaps the largest influence on bayonet technique was French.  They developed a school of “bayonet fencing” which proved effective.  It was exported around the world.  French bayonet technique was adopted by both British and American armies. Though it was superseded in the 20th Century, vestiges of it remain in many of the current bayonet fighting systems.
The overwhelming majority of military miniatures in bayonetting poses do not reflect actual techniques of the time. Many sculptors have no personal military experience. Even if they did, the bayonet style of their age would not match the techniques of earlier eras. You might be surprised how many people would not know about the differences between modern and old fighting styles.  Once again, sculptors take things for granted and would not even think that there might be a difference.
For your perusal, then, we illustrate a few series of bayonet fighting techniques.  These depict the standard fighting methods of their time.

English Bayonet from 1805

French Bayonet from 1837

German Bayonet 1830s to 1850s

George McClellan’s U.S. Bayonet System of 1852

Sir Richard Burton’s Bayonet 1853

Henry Angelo’s Bayonet for the British Army 1855

Patten’s Bayonet for US Volunteers 1861

French Bayonet Drill of 1861 (New York Militia 1863)

Confederate Bayonet 1861 (French 1858) Part 1

Confederate Bayonet 1861 (French 1858) Part 2

British Bayonet for Long Rifle 1862

Kelton’s Bayonet for the Union Army 1862

Bayonet from Civil War to 1916, Part 1
Bayonet from Civil War to 1916, Part 2

U.S. Bayonet 1875 (Upton’s Infantry Manual)

Prussian Bayonet 1901

U.S. Army Bayonet 1904 – 1917

Russian Bayonet Fencing 1905, Part 1

Russian Bayonet Fencing 1905, Part 2

Anglo-American Bayonet from 1917 to 1970
Soviet Bayonet Method 1942

Soviet Bayonet Training 1943

Soviet Bayonet 1945

Modern U.S. Bayonet

Categories
All About Guns

Firearm Blueprints & Plans

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Colt Model 1900 .38 ACP
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Now I have always been impressed by the wonderful art that the old Gun Companies put out in the form of Blue prints.
In the days before computers. These plans had to be hand drawn by Draftsmen. Having taken a drafting class in Junior HS, a few centuries ago. I can tell you it is not a easy job.
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So here is a few of some of the better ones for you to ponder upon.
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The BAR Exploding diagram

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The Browning Hi Power
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The 1911
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The Glock
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The H&K 91
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Uncategorized

Some more Gun Porn

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Other Stuff

More Stuff I found on TR! (I hope that you like it)

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TR At Harvard
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Uncategorized

A Diversity Idea that I could get behind!

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