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WW II German Assault Rifles

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Remember that stupid saying, “This changes everything”?Image result for This changes everything
Well this rifle actually did! As it took the German Army from this.
Image result for wwii german soldiers
To this.
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Much to the dismay of the Allied Infantry. Especially those poor SOB’s that only had bolt action rifles.Image result for wwii russian soldiers
Image result for wwii british soldiers
It even outclassed the American M-1 Garand Rifle!
As the Garand held 8 rounds compared to the 30 rounds of the Stg 44. Which also had a easily changed magazine versus a 8 round clip of the Garand.Image result for wwii american  soldiers with m1 garand
Image result for loading the  m1 garand
 
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I know which one I would want to have in a firefight, Sorry Mr Garand!
All in all the Stg 44 literally was a quantum leap in the area of infantry tactics. It is just a good thing that Hitler was in a way, Our best General!
Here is some more and better information about this amazing rifle!
Thanks for your time! Grumpy

StG 44

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sturmgewehr 44
MP44 - Tyskland - 8x33mm Kurz - Armémuseum.jpg

StG 44 from the collections of the Swedish Army Museum
Type Assault rifle
Place of origin Nazi Germany
Service history
In service 1943–1945 (Nazi Germany)
1949–1962 (East Germany)
Used by See Users
Wars World War II
Korean War
Algerian War
Vietnam War (Limited)
Ogaden War (Limited)
Iraq War
Syrian Civil War
Production history
Designer Hugo Schmeisser
Designed 1942
Manufacturer C. G. Haenel Waffen und Fahrradfabrik
CITEFA (post war)
Steyr-Daimler-Puch
Produced 1943–1945
No. built 425,977
Variants MKb 42(H), MKb 42(W), MP 43, MP 43/1, MP 44
Specifications
Weight 4.6 kg (10 lb) unloaded with magazine [1] / 5.13 kg(11.3 lb) loaded [2]
Length 94 cm (37 in)
Barrel length 42 cm (16.5 in)

Cartridge 7.92×33mm Kurz,[3] (aka. 8mm Kurz or Pistolenpatrone 43)
Action Gas-operated, tilting bolt, full auto or semi-auto
Rate of fire 550–600 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity 685 m/s (2,247 ft/s)
Effective firing range 300 m (automatic) 600 m (semi-automatic)[4]
Feed system 30-round detachable box magazine
Sights Adjustable sights, rear: V-notch; front: hooded post

The StG 44 (abbreviation of Sturmgewehr 44, “assault rifle 44”) is a German selective-fire rifle developed during World War II. It is also known under the designations MP 43 and MP 44 (Maschinenpistole 43Maschinenpistole 44 respectively).
The StG 44 was the first successful and widely produced design to use a new shorter cartridge, which permitted controllable automatic fire from a weapon more compact than a battle rifle, coupled with the recognition that most aimed rifle fire in combat situations did not exceed a few hundred metres.[5]
By all accounts, the StG 44 fulfilled its role effectively, particularly on the Eastern Front, offering a greatly increased volume of fire compared to standard infantry rifles.[5] However, it came too late to have a significant effect on the outcome of the war.[6] Its lasting effect was its major impact on modern infantry small arms development, giving rise to an entire class of weapons using the name assault rifle.[5]

Description

A soldier demonstrates the transitional MP 43/1 variant, used to determine the suitability of the rifle for sniping purposes, October 1943. The rifle is fitted with a ZF 4 telescopic sight.

MP 43, MP 44, and StG 44 were different designations for what was essentially the same rifle with minor updates in production. The variety in nomenclatures resulted from the complicated bureaucracy in Nazi Germany. Developed from the Mkb 42(H) “machine carbine”, the StG 44 combined the characteristics of a carbinesubmachine gun, and automatic rifle. StG is an abbreviation of Sturmgewehr. According to one account, the name was chosen personally by Adolf Hitler[7][8] for propaganda reasons and literally means “storm rifle” as in “to storm (i.e., assault) an enemy position”, although some sources dispute that Hitler had much to do with coining the new name besides signing the order.[9] After the adoption of the StG 44, the English translation “assault rifle” became the accepted designation for this type of infantry small arm. Over the course of its production, there were minor changes to the butt end, muzzle nut, shape of the front sight base and stepping of the barrel.
The rifle was chambered for the 7.92×33mm Kurz cartridge.[10][11] This shorter version of the German standard (7.92×57mm) rifle round, in combination with the weapon’s selective-fire design, provided a compromise between the controllable firepower of a submachine gun at close quarters with the accuracy and power of a Karabiner 98k bolt-actionrifle at intermediate ranges. While the StG 44 had less range and power than the more powerful infantry rifles of the day, Army studies had shown that few combat engagements occurred at more than 300 metres (330 yd) and the majority within 200 metres (220 yd). Full-power rifle cartridges were excessive for the vast majority of uses for the average soldier. Only a trained specialist, such as a sniper, or soldiers equipped with machine guns, which fired multiple rounds at a known or suspected target, could make full use of the standard rifle round’s range and power.
The British were critical of the weapon, saying that the receiver could be bent and the bolt locked up by the mere act of knocking a leaning rifle onto a hard floor.[12] A late-war U.S. assessment derided the StG-44 as “mediocre,” “bulky” and “unhandy,” declaring it incapable of sustained automatic fire and prone to jamming, though the report accepted that its accuracy was “excellent for a weapon of its type.”[13]

History

Background

In the late 19th century, small-arms cartridges had become able to fire accurately at long distances. Jacketed bullets propelled by smokeless powder were lethal out to 2,000 metres (2,200 yd). This was beyond the range a shooter could engage a target with open sights, as at that range a man-sized target would be completely blocked by the front sight blade. Only units of riflemen firing in salvos could hit grouped targets at those ranges. That fighting style was taken over by the widespread introduction of machine guns, which made use of these powerful cartridges to suppress the enemy at long range. Rifles remained the primary infantry weapon, but in some forces were seen as a secondary or support weapon, backing up the machine guns.[14]
This left a large gap in performance; the rifle was not effective at the ranges it could theoretically reach while being much larger and more powerful than needed for close combat. Weapons for short-range use existed, initially semi-automatic pistols and, later, automatic submachine guns. These fired small pistol rounds which lacked power and were useful only for very short range on the order of less than 100 metres (330 ft). The gap in cartridge ranges led to research into creating an intermediate round to fill this gap. This type of ammunition was being considered as early as 1892, but militaries at the time were still fixated on increasing the maximum range and velocity of bullets from their rifles.[14]

Earlier development

In the spring of 1918, Hauptmann (Captain) Piderit, part of the Gewehrprüfungskommission (Small Arms Proofing Committee) of the German General Staff in Berlin, submitted a paper arguing for the introduction of an intermediate round in the German Army with a suitable firearm. He pointed out that firefights rarely took place beyond 800 metres (870 yd), about half the 2 km (1.2 mi) range of the 7.92×57mm round from a Mauser Model 1898 or Maxim MG 08. A smaller, shorter, and less powerful round would save materials, allow soldiers to carry more ammunition, and increase firepower. Less recoil would allow semi-automatic or even fully automatic select-fire rifles, although in his paper he called it a Maschinenpistole (submachine gun). The German Army showed no interest, as it already had the MP 18 submachine gun firing 9 mm pistol rounds and did not want to create a new cartridge.[14]
In 1923, the German Army set out requirements for a Mauser 98 replacement. It had to be smaller and lighter than the Mauser, have similar performance out to 400 metres (440 yd), and have a magazine with a 20 or 30 round capacity. The Bavarian company Rheinisch-Westfälische Sprengstoff (RWS) experimented with rounds in the 1920s, and German companies developing intermediate ammunition for aerial machine guns showed interest. Development of the future infantry rifle did not start until the 1930s. RWS offered two rounds, one with a 7 mm bullet and one with an 8 mm bullet, both in a 46 mm case. The German company Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken had the 7×39.1mm round, and Gustav Genschow & Co (Geco) proposed a 7.75×39.5mm round. Geco’s automatic carbine was the Model A35, a further development of the SG29 semi-automatic rifle. The weapon was complicated and unsafe to handle.[14]
The German government started its own intermediate round and weapon program soon after. German ammunition maker Polte of Magdeburg was commissioned to develop the rounds in April 1938 and signed a contract with the Heereswaffenamt (HWA). At the same time, the HWA contracted C.G. Haenel of Suhl to create a weapon for the round. HWA requirements were for a rifle that was shorter and with equal or less weight to the Kar 98k and as accurate out to 400 metres (440 yd); and be select-fire with a rate of fire under 450 rounds per minute. It should be rifle grenade compatible, reliable, maintainable, and have a “straightforward design”. Fifty rifles were to be delivered for field testing in early 1942.[14]

A German infantryman armed with an StG 44, wearing “splinter” camouflage and a ghillie cap in 1944.

At the start of World War II, German infantry were equipped with weapons comparable to those of most other military forces. A typical infantry unit was equipped with a mix of bolt-action rifles and some form of light or mediummachine guns.[citation needed] A problem with this mix was that the standard rifles were too large to be effectively used by mechanized and armored forces, where they were difficult to maneuver in the cramped spaces of an armored vehicle. Submachine guns, such as the MP 28, MP 38, and MP 40, were issued to augment infantry rifle use and increase individual soldiers’ firepower, but suffered from a distinct lack of range and accuracy beyond 100 metres (110 yd). A small fast-firing weapon would have been useful in this role, but again the need did not seem pressing.

New requirements

The issue arose once again during the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Red Army had been in the process of replacing its own bolt-action rifles in the immediate pre–war era. Increasing numbers of semi-automatic Tokarev SVT-38and SVT-40s were reaching Red Army units, though issue was generally restricted to elite units and non-commissioned officers. Submachine guns were extremely widespread, and issued on a far larger scale; some Soviet rifle companies were completely equipped with PPSh-41 submachine guns.[15]
This experience with high volumes of hand-held automatic fire forced German commanders to rethink their small arms requirements. The German army had been attempting to introduce semi-automatic weapons of its own, notably the Gewehr 41, but these early rifles proved troublesome in service, and production was insufficient to meet forecast requirements. Several attempts had been made to introduce lightweight machine guns or automatic rifles for these roles, but invariably recoil from the powerful 7.92×57mm round made them too difficult to control in automatic fire.
By 1941, it was becoming clear that action needed to be taken. Although the various experimental rounds had been developed to one degree or another by this point, the Army instead decided to select yet another new design, the Polte 8×33mm Kurzpatrone (“short cartridge”). This used the spitzer bullet and basic cartridge design of the standard Mauser 8 mm rifle cartridge, cutting down the cartridge from the original 7.92×57mm to 7.92×33mm.[3] It was understood that this was not ideal, but it would minimize logistical problems.

MKb 42

The early Haenel MKb 42(H), the precursor to the MP 43/44. This example belongs to the Springfield Armory National Historic Site.

MKb 42W (Walther)

Contracts for rifles firing the 7.92×33mm[3] round were sent to both Walther and Haenel (whose design group was headed by Hugo Schmeisser), who were asked to submit prototype weapons under the name Maschinenkarabiner 1942 (MKb 42, literally “machine carbine”). Both designs were similar, using a gas-operatedaction, with both semi-automatic and fully automatic firing modes.
In December 1940, a prototype rifle from Haenel and Walther was tested by the HWA at Kummersdorf. It had multiple jams, several barrels bulged, and one had a catastrophic failure. Testers blamed the results on poor quality ammunition. In February 1942, 10 million 7.92 mm rounds were ordered for field testing. On 9 July 1942, field and comparative tests were conducted with the ammunition and Haenel MKb 42(H) rifle. 3,654 shots were fired; 11 cases were separated, 67 rounds were duds (56 fired on second trial), and many other rounds stovepipe jammed. Failures were blamed on the prototype stage of the weapon’s design.[14]
The original prototype of Haenel’s design, the MKb 42(H), fired from an open boltand used a striker for firing. The receiver and trigger housing with pistol grip were made from steel stampings, which were attached to the barrel assembly on a hinge, allowing the weapon to be folded open for quick disassembly and cleaning. The Haenel design proved superior to Walther’s MKb 42(W), and the army then asked Haenel for another version incorporating a list of minor changes designated MKb 42(H). One was to include lugs for mounting a standard bayonet, another to change the pitch of the rifling. A production run of these modified versions was sent to the field in November 1942, and the users appreciated it with a few reservations. Another set of modifications added a hinged cover over the ejection port to keep it clean in combat, and rails to mount a telescopic sight. A run of these modified MKb 42(H)s in late 1942 and early 1943 produced 11,833 guns.[citation needed]
Ultimately, it was recommended that a hammer firing system operating from a closed bolt similar to Walther’s design be incorporated. The gas expansion chamber over the barrel was deemed unnecessary, and was removed from successive designs, as was the underbarrel bayonet lug.
By March 1943, 2,734 MKb 42(H) were accepted into service, followed by 2,179 in April alone and 3,044 in May; these numbers correlate well with the Haenel estimates for these months (2,000 and respectively 3,000). Additionally, Haenel estimated that 3,000 were made in June and 1,000 in July, resulting in a high estimate of 12,000 units for the MKb 42(H). However, the Haenel production figures from June 1943 onward do not differentiate between the last batches of MKb 42(H) and the first batches of MP 43/1.[16] Other sources seem to accept only the more conservative estimate of 8,000 units.[17][18] How many Walther MKb 42(W) were produced is even more uncertain. Some sources suggested as many as 8,000, but conservative estimates put the number at about 200, and say that most of these remained in the Walther factory until the end of the war.[16] Production began in November 1942 and was to reach 10,000 per month by March 1943. The total number of MKb42(H)s manufactured between November 1942 and September 1943 was 12,000 rifles, with only about 1,000 produced per month.[14]
The MKb 42(H) was mostly used on the Eastern front. By one account, the gun saw action as early as April 1942 when 35 of the only 50 prototypes then in existence were parachuted into the Kholm Pocket.[9]

MP 43, MP 44, StG 44

Grenadiers operating in the area of AachenGermany in 1944

As work moved forward to incorporate this new firing system, development halted when Hitler suspended all new rifle programs due to administrative infighting within the Third Reich. Hitler ordered that newer submachine guns were to be built, and he strongly disagreed with the use of the Kurz ammunition. To keep the MKb 42(H) development program alive, the Waffenamt (Armament Office) re-designated the weapon as the Maschinenpistole 43 (MP 43) and, making a few improvements, billed the weapon as an upgrade to existing submachine guns.
Much time was wasted trying to make the MP 43 a replacement for the Kar 98k rifle. This goal was eventually realized to be impossible; the MP 43 cartridge was too weak to fire rifle grenades, too inaccurate for sniping, and the weapon was too short for bayonet fighting. In September 1943, it was decided that the MP 43 would supplement rather than replace the Kar 98k. As a result, the optical sight base, grenade-launching extended muzzle thread, and bayonet lug were removed.[14]
Adolf Hitler eventually discovered the designation deception and halted the program again. In March 1943, he permitted it to recommence for evaluation purposes only. Running for six months until September 1943, the evaluation produced positive results, and Hitler allowed the MP 43 program to continue in order to make mass production possible. The first MP 43s were distributed to the Waffen-SS; in October 1943, some were issued to the 93rd Infantry Division on the Eastern Front. Production and distribution continued to different units. In April 1944, Hitler took some interest in the weapon tests and ordered the weapon (with some minor updates) to be re-designated as the MP 44. In July 1944, at a meeting of the various army heads about the Eastern Front, when Hitler asked what they needed, a general exclaimed, “More of these new rifles!”. The exclamation caused some confusion (Hitler’s response is reputed to have been “What new rifle?”), but once Hitler saw the MP 44 being demonstrated, he was impressed and gave it the title Sturmgewehr. Seeing the possibility of a propaganda gain, the rifle was again renamed as the Sturmgewehr 44 (StG 44), to highlight the new class of weapon it represented. The designation translates to “Storm (Assault) rifle, model 1944”, thereby introducing the term “assault rifle”.

StG 44 equipped Volksgrenadiersfighting in the Ardennes.

A common belief of Hitler’s influence over the Sturmgewehr was that he was against an intermediate rifle round. In reality, he could have ordered the project to be canceled entirely if he wanted to, especially if it had been hidden from him. Numerous reports and company correspondence reveal frequent presentation of the rifle’s stages of development to Hitler. Rather than being opposed to the entire idea, his apprehension seemed to be from reluctance to send a new weapon to the front in too small numbers. Industry would not be able to replace some 12 million Kar 98k rifles in a short time, and the already strained logistics structure would have to support another cartridge. While the Sturmgewehr required specialized tooling to manufacture it, it consumed less materials and was faster and easier to make than a Kar 98k. Without suppliers to quickly produce components, companies could not manufacture sufficient numbers to replace the Kar 98k quickly. Introducing the new assault rifle in quantities that would not make an impression on the front would be counter-productive. Hitler instead wanted to introduce it on the largest scale possible, which has been misinterpreted as his resistance to new technology.[14]
Production soon began with the first batches of the new rifle being shipped to troops on the Eastern Front. By the end of the war, a total of 425,977 StG 44 variants of all types were produced and work had commenced on a follow-on rifle, the StG45. The assault rifle proved a valuable weapon, especially on the Eastern front, where it was first deployed. A properly trained soldier with a StG 44 had an improved tactical repertoire, in that he could effectively engage targets at longer ranges than with an MP 40, but be much more useful than the Kar 98k in close combat, as well as provide covering fire like a light machine gun. It was also found to be exceptionally reliable in extreme cold. The StG 44’s rate of fire varied between 550 and 600 rpm.
A primary use of the MP 44/StG 44 was to counter the Soviet PPS and PPSh-41 submachine guns, which used the 7.62×25mm Tokarev round. These cheap, mass-produced weapons used a 71-round drum magazine or 35-round box magazine and though shorter-ranged than the Kar 98k rifle, were more effective weapons in close-quarter engagements. The StG 44, while lacking the range of the Kar 98k, had a considerably longer range than the PPS/PPSh submachine guns, more power, a comparable rate of fire, an ability to switch between a fully automatic and a default semi-automatic fire mode and surprising accuracy. The StG 44 was an intermediate weapon for the period; the muzzle velocity from its 419 mm (16.5 in) barrel was 685 m/s (2,247.4 ft/s), compared to 760 m/s (2,493 ft/s) of the Karabiner 98k, 744 m/s (2,440.9 ft/s) of the British Bren, 600 m/s (1,968.5 ft/s) of the M1 carbine, and 365 m/s (1,197.5 ft/s) achieved by the MP40. Furthermore, the StG 44’s inline design gave it controllability even on full-auto. In short, the StG 44 provided the individual user with unparalleled firepower compared to that of all earlier handheld firearms, warranting other countries to soon embrace the assault rifle concept.
The 1st Infantry Division of Army Group South and 32nd Infantry Division of Army Group North were selected to be issued the rifle, both being refitted from heavy losses on the Eastern Front; ammunition shortages meant the 1st ID was the only division fully equipped with it. The Kar 98k was retained as a specialist weapon for sniping and launching rifle grenades, while MP 40s were used by vehicle and artillery crews and officers. The StG 44 was issued to all infantry soldiers and employed for accurate short-range rapid-fire shooting (similar to how the MP 18 was used when it went into service). The assault rifles in a squad added firepower when the machine gun had to cease fire or move. When attacking a position, Kar 98k riflemen would use grenades against it at close-range, while StG 44 riflemen would fire in rapid semi-automatic or automatic bursts to keep the defenders suppressed. The magazine follower spring had a short service life, so soldiers were ordered to load no more than 25 rounds to reduce wear of the spring. In January 1945, a magazine was introduced fitted with a fixed plug to restrict its capacity to 25 rounds.[14] While the StG 44 was capable of fully automatic fire, German soldiers were directed to use it primarily in semi-automatic mode. Fully automatic mode was to be used only in emergencies, for short bursts of two or three rounds.[19]
One unusual addition to the design was the Krummlauf; a bent barrel attachment for rifles with a periscope sighting device for shooting around corners from a safe position. It was produced in several variants: an “I” version for infantry use, a “P” version for use in tanks (to cover the dead areas in the close range around the tank, to defend against assaulting infantry), versions with 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° bends, a version for the StG 44 and one for the MG 42. Only the 30° “I” version for the StG 44 was produced in any numbers. The bent barrel attachments had very short lifespans – approx. 300 rounds for the 30° version, and 160 rounds for the 45° variant. The 30° model was able to achieve a 35×35 cm grouping at 100 m.[20]

Zielgerät 1229 infra-red aiming device, also known by its codename Vampir (“vampire”)

Some StG 44s were fitted with the Zielgerät 1229 infra-red aiming device, also known by its codename Vampir (“vampire”). This device consisted of a large scope, rather like modern starlight scopes, and a large infra-red lamp on top, the scope being able to pick up the infra-red that would be invisible to the naked eye. The user had to carry a transformer backpack powered by a battery fitted inside the gas mask canister. Electric cables connected the power unit with the IR reflector, with the cathode ray tube mounted on the rifle imaging IR from the spotlight. The Vampir had only 15 minutes of battery life, but was able to sight within 200 meters in total darkness. A conical flash hider was added to the barrel to keep the muzzle flash from blinding the shooter.[14]
At the end of the war, Hugo Schmeisser claimed that 424,000 MP 43/MP 44/StG 44 rifles were built between June 1943 and April 1945 in four plants: 185,000 by C.G. Haenel in Suhl; 55,000 by J.P. Sauer & Sohn in Suhl; 104,000 in Erfurt; and 80,000 by Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG in Steyr, Austria. This was fewer than the 1.5 million ordered, and far fewer than the 4 million planned.[14]

Late prototypes

The Gerät 06 (“device 06”) prototype. An attempt to further simplify the MP 43/44 and StG 44 series of weapons. The pictured example is incomplete; it was captured in 1945 and evaluated at Aberdeen Proving Ground after the war.

In a somewhat unrelated development, Mauser continued design work on a series of experimental weapons in an effort to produce an acceptable service-wide rifle for the short cartridge system. One of these prototypes, a product of the engineers at the Light Weapon Development Group (Abteilung 37) at Oberndorf, was the MKb Gerät 06 (Maschinenkarabiner Gerät 06 or “machine carbine device 06”) first appearing in 1942. This gun used a unique gas piston-delayed roller-locked action derived from the short recoil operation of the MG 42 machine gun but with a fixed barrel and gas system. It was realized that with careful attention to the mechanical ratios, the gas system could be omitted. The resultant weapon, the Gerät 06(H), was supposedly slated for adoption by the Wehrmacht as the StG 45(M). The operating principle lived on in postwar designs from CEAM/AMECETME, and most famously, Heckler & Koch.
Towards the end of the war, there were last-ditch efforts to develop cheap so-called Volksgewehr rifles in the 7.92×33mm[3] caliber. One of these, the VG 1-5 (Volkssturmgewehr 1-5), used a gas-delayed blowback action based on the Barnitzke system, whereby gas bled from the barrel near the chamber created resistance to the rearward impulse of the operating parts, which ceases when the projectile leaves the muzzle, allowing the operating parts to be forced rearward by the residual pressure of the cartridge case. This principle has been used most successfully in the P7 pistol.

Post-1945

Officers of the East GermanVolkspolizei parading through the streets of Neustrelitz in 1955. The StG 44 remained in service with the organization until the early 1960s.

The Sturmgewehr remained in use with the East German Nationale Volksarmeewith the designation MPi.44 until it was eventually replaced with variants of the AK-47 assault rifle. The Volkspolizei used it until approximately 1962 when it was replaced by the PPSh-41. Other countries to use the StG 44 after World War II included the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic[21] and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,[22] where units such as the 63rd Paratroop Battalion were equipped with it until the 1980s,[23] when the rifles were ultimately transferred to Territorial Defense reserves or sold to friendly regimes in the Middle East and Africa.
Argentina manufactured their own trial versions of the StG 44 made by CITEFA in the late 1940s and early 1950s,[24][25] but instead adopted the FN FAL in 1955, because it used the then more common and powerful 7.62×51mm NATO round, which also lacked connections with the Third Reich.
New semi-automatic civilian reproductions of the MKb 42(H), MP 43/1, and StG 44 are being manufactured in Germany today by SSD (Sport Systeme Dittrich) and distributed by HZA Kulmbach GmbH[26] in the original 7.92×33mm Kurz chambering and accepting the standard magazines. The PTR-44 by PTR-91 Incorporated was produced for a short while, but was soon discontinued due to high prices and lack of demand. A .22 rimfire copy of the StG 44 by GSG (German Sports Guns) has also been manufactured in great quantity for a lower price, but it is the only widely available reproduction of the StG. Talks have been made by HMG (Hill & Mac Gunworks) to mass-produce a StG-44 replica in different calibers, including the original 8×33mm Kurz, but also more modern calibers, like 7.62×39mm5.56×45mm NATOand .300 AAC Blackout, but these have yet to be released.[27]
7.92mm Kurz ammunition is currently manufactured by Prvi Partizan of Serbia.

Legacy

A .22 rimfire copy of the StG 44 by German Sports Guns (GSG)

The StG 44 was the first assault rifle-type weapon to be accepted into widespread service and put into mass production.[28] “The principle of this weapon — the reduction of muzzle impulse to get useful automatic fire within actual ranges of combat — was probably the most important advance in small arms since the invention of smokeless powder.”[29] The StG 44’s effect on post-war arms design was wide-ranging, as evidenced by Mikhail Kalashnikov‘s AK-47, and later Eugene Stoner‘s M16 and its variants. The Soviet Union was quick to adopt the assault rifle concept. The AK-47 used a similar-sized intermediate round and followed the design concept, but was mechanically very different.[30] In 1944 the US added an automatic fire capability to the M1 carbine, and issued it as the M2 carbine with 30 round magazines, fulfilling much the same function. Kits were distributed to convert M1 carbines to M2s.
The extent to which the Sturmgewehr influenced the development of the AK-47 is not clearly known. The AK-47 was not a direct copy of the German gun because the AK-47 used a very different mechanism. However, tens of thousands of Sturmgewehrs were captured by the Soviets and were likely provided to Kalashnikov and his team, so it is likely that he knew of it while designing the AK-47. The 7.62×39mm cartridge, however, was more directly influenced by the 7.92×33mm cartridge used in the StG 44. In July 1943, the Soviet Technical Council of the People’s Commissariat for Armament (NKV) met to consider new foreign weapons firing lower-powered rounds. Two rounds that were studied were the American .30 Carbine and German 7.92 Kurz, captured from MKb 42(H) rifles undergoing troop trials. The meeting concluded that the 7.92 mm cartridge was an important development and that the Soviets needed to design a reduced-power round. The first prototype 7.62 mm M1943 round was created a month later and used the 7.92 Kurz design method of using the same caliber bullet as their standard rifle round (7.62×54mmR) in a shorter case.[28]
After World War II, many Western countries continued using their existing full-caliber rifles. Although the 7.62×51mm NATO round adopted post-war was still a full-power cartridge, the trend towards the adoption of less powerful rounds was already underway in the West. For example, the M1 Garand had initially been developed for the .276 Pedersen (7 mm) round, a cartridge less powerful than the standard .30-06 Springfield. The U.S. Army’s adoption of the M1 carbine in 1941 proved the utility of a small, handy, low-powered rifle that required little training to use effectively. Franchi of Italy-based the actions of both the LF-58 carbine and the LF-59 battle rifle on the StG-44.[31]
United States of America and, later, NATO developed assault rifles along a roughly similar path by at first adding selective-fire capability in a reduced power, full-caliber cartridge. The Soviet Union lightened the AK-47 and introduced the AKM. U.S.A. developed the concept of small-caliber, high-velocity (SCHV) bullets and further reduced the weight of their firearms with the introduction of the M16 (5.56 mm). The Soviet armed forces followed suit with the introduction of the SCHV AK-74 rifle (5.45 mm).

Users

Non-state groups

After World War II, the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc states supplied allied regimes and guerrilla movements with captured German arms, such as the StG 44, along with newly manufactured or repackaged 7.92×33mm ammunition. French forces discovered many in Algeria and determined the origin to be from Czechoslovakia. Examples also found their way into the hands of the Vietcong during the Vietnam War, and the PLO.[41] It is still used in very limited numbers by militia and insurgent forces in the Middle East[42] as well as some countries in the Horn of Africa. StG 44s have been confiscated from militia groups by U.S. forces in Iraq.
In August 2012, the Syrian Al-Tawhid Brigade posted a video clip on their YouTube channel showing a cache of StG 44[43]in their possession, which they claim to have captured amongst 5,000 StG 44 rifles and various ammunition from a weapons depot in the city of Aleppo.[44] Photos later surfaced of the rebels using them in combat.[38] In September 2013, a photo showed a Syrian rebel with a Sturmgewehr 44 hooked up to a makeshift remote weapon station. The gun was controlled by a wired joystick, vision was provided by a video camera mounted behind a scope, and the picture was displayed on an LCD screen.[45]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44) D1854/3 Manual
  2. Jump up^ The full weight of the StG 44 with empty magazine & sling is 4.62 kg according to the original ‘Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44) D1854/3 Manual’, and each 7.92mm S.m.E. Kurz round weighs in at 17.05 grams a piece according to the original 7.92 Kurz Polte drawings, so with 30 rounds in the magazine the fully loaded weight of the StG 44 will be 5.13 kg.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d Jane’s Guns Recognition Guide, Ian Hogg & Terry Gander, Harper & Collins Publishers, 2005, Page 287
  4. Jump up^ Rusiecki, Stephen M., In final defense of the Reich: the destruction of the 6th SS Mountain Division “Nord” ISBN 978-1-59114-744-2, p.361
  5. Jump up to:a b c Jane’s Guns Recognition Guide, Ian Hogg & Terry Gander, HarperCollins Publisher, 2005, p.287 Sturmgewehr 44 “This is the father of all assault rifles, developed in Germany in 1941-42 an using a new short cartridge. Originally known as the MP 43 (Machine Pistol) for Nazi political reasons, it was renamed the “Sturmgewehr 44″ after its successful introduction into battle on the Eastern Front. It introduced the concept of using a short cartridge with limited range in order to permit controllable automatic fire and a compact weapon, and because experience showed that most rifle fire was conducted at ranges under 400 meters. After the war it was examined and dissected by almost every major gunmaking nation and led, in one way and another, to the present-day 5.56mm assault rifles.”
  6. Jump up to:a b Bishop, Chris (1998), The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, New York: Orbis Publishing Ltd., ISBN 0-7607-1022-8[page needed]
  7. Jump up^ Chris Bishop (2002). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War IISterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 218.
  8. Jump up^ Military Small Arms of the 20th Century, 7th Edition, Ian V. Hogg, page 243
  9. Jump up to:a b Rottman, Gordon. The AK-47: Kalashnikov-series assault rifles. Osprey Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-84908-835-0.
  10. Jump up^ Small Arms Review, Vol. 7 No. 4, January, 2004
  11. Jump up^ Barnes, Frank C. (1997) [1965]. McPherson, M.L.. ed. Cartridges of the World (8th Edition ed.). DBI Books. pp. 294, 311. ISBN 0-87349-178-5.
  12. Jump up^ Shore, C. (Capt.), With British Snipers to the Reich, Samworth Press, 1948[page needed]
  13. Jump up^ Tactical and Technical Trends, U.S. War Department, No. 57, April 1945, [1]
  14. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Erenfeicht, Leszek (30 September 2013), “Sturmgewehr: Hitler’s Only True Wunderwaffe”SAdefensejournal.com
  15. Jump up^ Weeks, John, World War II Small Arms, Galahad Books, 1979[page needed]
  16. Jump up to:a b Guus De Vries and Bas Martens (2001). The Mkb42, Mp43, Mp44 and the Sturmgewehr 44. S.I. Publicaties Bv. p. 58. ISBN 978-90-805583-6-6.
  17. Jump up^ David Westwood (2005). Rifles: An Illustrated History Of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. p. 325. ISBN 978-1-85109-401-1.
  18. Jump up^ Philip Peterson (2011). Standard Catalog of Military Firearms: The Collector’s Price and Reference Guide. F+W Media. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-4402-2881-0.
  19. Jump up^ Mcnab, Chris (2014). German automatic rifles 1941-45 gew 41, gew 43, fg 42 and stg 44. London: Osprey Pub. ISBN 1780963874.
  20. Jump up^ Lexikon der Wehrmacht: Sturmgewehre (Encyclopedia of the German Army: Assault Rifles)”Wehrmacht. January 11, 2007.
  21. Jump up^ “Valka.cz site”. Forum.valka.cz. 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  22. Jump up^ “1966 photograph of JNA unit with StG44s”. Rides.webshots.com. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  23. Jump up^ “Svetski Rat article on postwar Yugoslavian use of StG44”. Svetskirat.net. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  24. Jump up^ (in Spanish)Museo de Armas de La Nacion
  25. Jump up to:a b Julio S. Guzmán, Las Armas Modernas de Infantería, Abril de 1953[page needed]
  26. Jump up^ “Sport-Systeme Dittrich website”. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
  27. Jump up^ “StG 44 in 5.56 and 7.62×39 On The Way – The Firearm Blog”. 24 June 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  28. Jump up to:a b Assault Rifles and Their Ammunition: History and Prospects by Anthony G Williams
  29. Jump up^ http://pogoarchives.org/labyrinth/09/02.pdf M16 Rifle Case Study. Prepared for the President’s Blue Ribbon Defense Panel. March 16, 1970. By Richard R. Hallock, Colonel U.S. Army (Retired)
  30. Jump up^ Joly, Elena; Kalashnikov, Mikhail (2006), The Gun That Changed the World, Cambridge: Polity, ISBN 978-0-7456-3692-4[page needed]
  31. Jump up^ “Franchi LF58 / LF59 – Guns Review / American Rifleman – 1971”. Exordinanza.net. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  32. Jump up^ https://wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com/2015/09/27/stg-44-in-africa-after-wwii/
  33. Jump up^ https://wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com/2015/09/27/stg-44-in-africa-after-wwii/
  34. Jump up^ Vladimir Brnardic. World War II Croation Legionaries: Croation Troops Under Axis Command 1941—45. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-4728-1767-9.
  35. Jump up^ https://wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com/2015/09/27/stg-44-in-africa-after-wwii/
  36. Jump up^ Tibor, Rada (2001). “Német gyalogsági fegyverek magyar kézben” [German infantry weapons in Hungarian hands]. A Magyar Királyi Honvéd Ludovika Akadémia és a Testvérintézetek Összefoglalt Története (1830-1945) (in Hungarian). II. Budapest: Gálos Nyomdász Kft. p. 1114. ISBN 963-85764-3-X.
  37. Jump up^ https://wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com/2015/09/27/stg-44-in-africa-after-wwii/
  38. Jump up to:a b Sturmgewehr 44 used by Syrian Rebels – Thefirearmblog.com, 22 August 2012
  39. Jump up^ https://wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com/2015/07/10/wwii-german-weapons-during-the-vietnam-war/
  40. Jump up^ Maxim Popenker (2005). Assault Rifle. p. 107. ISBN 1-86126-700-2.
  41. Jump up^ “Armes des Forces spéciales au Vietnam”. Vietnam.masta.fr. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  42. Jump up^ “Pro-Lebanese Forces website”. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
  43. Jump up^ “Syrian Sturmgewehr Cache”. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  44. Jump up^ لواء التوحيد (10 August 2012). “لواء التوحيد اكثر من 5000 بارودة وذخيرة متنوعة في عملية نوعية للواء التوحيد 10 8 2012”. Retrieved 4 August2016 – via YouTube.
  45. Jump up^ Remote Control Sturmgewehr 44 In Syria – Thefirearmblog.com, 30 September 2013

 
 

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How to Survive a Mugging

Brett | March 22, 2017

Manly SkillsSurvivalTactical Skillsman being mugged by masked robber illustration

Have I told you about the time I got mugged in Tijuana?
I was a missionary serving in the western part of the city that consisted primarily of ramshackle houses. Mangy dogs filled the dusty dirt roads I walked up and down every day. (Pro tip: if you want to scare off aggressive dogs in Tijuana, pretend like you’re picking up a rock to throw at them. They usually run away. If they don’t run away and keep coming after you, throw an actual rock at them.)
Anyway, one day I was out walking the streets of TJ and this scrawny, pelon (bald) fella with a goatee started walking towards me. He was wearing a wife beater, baggy jeans, and some old work boots. As he got closer, I noticed a tear drop tattoo beneath his right eye.
He was a cholo.
Now for the most part, missionaries and cholos got along pretty well in Tijuana. They’d greet us with “Que honda, hermanos!” and slap us some skin. But this particular cholo didn’t look like he wanted to be my cuate.
He came over and offered me a cigarette.
“No fumo,” I responded.
He popped the cigarette in his mouth, lit it, and took a few drags.
We stood there in awkward silence for a few minutes.
Then suddenly he pulled out, I kid you not, a Phillips head screwdriver (a screwdriver!), and thrust it towards my belly.
Damme tu pinche walleta, cabron!” (Give me your f****** wallet, dumbass!)
Without thinking, I grabbed the wrist of the hand holding the screwdriver and then grabbed his other wrist with my other hand.
I squeezed them as hard as I could, looked him straight in the eye, and said the first thing that came into my head:
“Sabes quien soy yo?”
“No, quein eres, tu?” snarled the cholo.
“Soy un representate de Jesucristo.” 
Immediately, the countenance on my attacker’s face softened. His body slumped, his arms relaxed, and he started to sob.
“O, hermano! Perdoname, por favor!”
The cholo went on to tell me how he just needed money for the bus fare to get to his sick sister in Tecate. That’s why he had tried to rob me. He told me the whole sad story, while real tears streamed over his tattooed one. He said he hadn’t known I was an “hermano” and wouldn’t have pulled the screwdriver out on me if he had.
I told him that if I had had the money for his bus fare, and he had simply asked for it, I would have given it to him — no screwdriver to the gut required. I unfortunately didn’t have any money on me, but I gave him a small card with Jesus and Mary Magdalene on it, shook his hand, patted him on the back, told him “Animo!” and “Suerete!” and we parted ways.
It was only then that I felt the cortisol coursing through my body, and snapped out of the adrenaline-fueled tunnel vision I had been experiencing. I started to shake, breathe heavily, and feel rather light-headed.
It was a crazy experience, but makes for an interesting memory and story. (I’ve got lots of fun Tijuana stories. If we ever meet up, ask me to share some with you.)
Before that time, I had no clue what to do in a mugging. I was working on instinct and, consequently, made some tactical mistakes that could have allowed me to avoid the situation altogether.
By luck (or grace!) I got mugged by a guy who was 1) much smaller than me, 2) decided to use a Phillips head screwdriver, and 3) had a religious sensibility that prompted him to respond favorably to my Blues Brothers-esque decree that I was on a mission from God (now that I think about it, I was dressed sort of like a Blues Brother).
If it had been another guy and I tried the same thing, it might not have turned out so well.
Since that experience years ago, I’ve had the chance to rub shoulders with and talk to dozens of security and self-defense experts. And one question I’ve frequently posed to them is what someone should do in a mugging. They’ve all responded with the same tips and advice. Below I share what they’ve taught me on how to avoid being mugged in the first place, and what to do if you are.

The Best Mugging Defense of All: Avoid Being Mugged in the First Place

Stay in populated areas. While pickpockets like crowded areas, muggers prefer to attack individuals when they’re by themselves. It reduces the chances of witnesses.
So rule number one of avoiding being mugged: stay in populated areas, and don’t go out alone.
Stay in well-lit areas. Again, muggers like to do their work where they can’t be seen, so if you’re out and about at night, stay in well-lit areas. When you park your car at a store, park it underneath a light. Avoid dark alleys and the like. If you are out at night, keep a tactical flashlight on you. It allows you to identify potential threats and the bright light can momentarily disorient attackers.
Stay discreet. “Gray man” is a phrase you hear a lot in the tactical world. It means dressing and acting in a way that doesn’t bring much attention to yourself. To avoid being mugged, be the gray man. Don’t wear anything that would make you an attractive target to would-be muggers. If you’re going to be in an unsafe part of town, keep the expensive jewelry and watches at home. Dress discretely and in a way that doesn’t suggest you’ve got a lot of money.
Maintain situational awareness. Stay in condition yellow. Know what’s going on in your surroundings. Look for anomalies. This requires you to take off your headphones, keep your nose out of your phone, and regularly study up on and test your situational awareness.
In my case, my situational awareness was pretty good leading up to the mugging. I recognized that the cholo walking towards me was going to be trouble. The tactical error I made was I didn’t take action based on my observation. Which brings me to my next point…
If you see a potential threat, move to safety. If you recognize a possible threat, move to safety immediately. And safety usually means well-lit and populated areas.
Also maintain distance between you and your potential attacker. Many muggers will approach you to ask the time. If a shady-looking character approaches you with that kind of question, keep walking while you answer.
When I got mugged, I stood next to my would-be attacker for like five minutes while he smoked. I guess I thought it would have been rude to leave? I don’t know. Whatever the reason, it was dumb. I should have left as soon as I sensed trouble.

What to Do If You Get Mugged

You’ve taken all the precautionary steps, but you’re still getting mugged. What do you do then?
Give the mugger what he wants. If you can’t run, just give the mugger what he wants. Your life is worth much more than your wallet or watch. Don’t fight back. Every self-defense expert I’ve talked to recommends this, and these are some tough mofos who could take on, and take down, most anyone they wanted — and yet they still say it’s not worth escalating the altercation into violence unless absolutely necessary.
Most muggers just want money from you. If you give them what they want, they’ll leave you alone. The majority of armed robberies end without injury.
When you give the wallet to your attacker, do so in a way that maintains distance between you and him. This may mean throwing it to him.
In some instances, muggers will stand near ATMs, point a weapon at you, and demand that you withdraw money for them. Co-cooperate knowing the confrontation will be over soon.
Consider a dummy wallet. If you live and work in an area with a high number of muggings, you might consider carrying a “dummy wallet.” It’s a cheap wallet that you fill with a few dollar bills and those promotional cards that credit card companies send you. Keep it in your other back pocket and give it to him when he asks for your wallet.
Maintain situational awareness. You’re going to be spooked during your mugging, but do your best to maintain situational awareness. Remember important details about your mugger’s appearance for the police report: height, clothing, hair color, race, tattoos, etc.
Make noise. Again, muggers want to do their work with as little attention as possible drawn to them. Being extra loud while you interact can scare them off.
Fight back only as a last resort. The basic guideline is to cooperate with your attacker and give him what he wants. There are situations when you should consider fighting back though.
If your attacker is getting extremely close to you and throwing punches or jabbing a knife towards you, you need to defend yourself. Control whatever weapon your attacker is using and unleash violence on them. Use improvised weapons. Gouge eyes, stomp feet, knee nuts.
If your attacker is demanding that you get into a car, do whatever you have to do to not get in the car. Your attacker is likely taking you to a “second crime scene.” You don’t want to go to a second crime scene. These are places that are completely hidden from public view where violent criminals kill/rape/beat their victims. Crime studies show that a victim’s chances of survival go down once they get to a second crime scene. So if you’re told to get into a vehicle, fight like your life depends on it — because it probably does. (Even if you end up in the trunk, you can still escape.)
If you play your cards right, you’ll avoid getting mugged in the first place. But if you do get mugged, you’ll know how to handle it. And if all else fails, you can always tell your attacker you represent Jesus, and hope for some divine intervention.
 

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Another Theory on how we got the 2nd Admendment

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Tax Freedom Day !

April Fools! Sorry But It is NEVER Really Tax Freedom Day!

Image result for cartoon serfs

Tax Freedom Day

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tax Freedom Day is the first day of the year in which a nation as a whole has theoretically earned enough income to pay its taxes. Every dollar that is officially considered income by the government is counted, and every payment to the government that is officially considered a tax is counted. Taxes at all levels of government – local, state and federal – are included.

Purpose[edit]

According to Neil Veldhuis, Director of Fiscal Studies, Fraser Institute, the purpose of Tax Freedom Day is to provide citizens of tax-paying countries with a metric with which to estimate their “total tax bill”. The premise is that by comparing the benefits received by citizens to the amount they pay in taxes, the value of paying taxes can be assessed.

History and methodology[edit]

The concept of Tax Freedom Day was developed in 1948 by Florida businessman Dallas Hostetler, who trademarked the phrase “Tax Freedom Day” and calculated it each year for the next two decades.[1] In 1971, Hostetler retired and transferred the trademark to the Tax Foundation.[2] The Tax Foundation has calculated Tax Freedom Day for the United States ever since, using it as a tool for illustrating the proportion of national income diverted to fund the annual cost of government programs. In 1990, the Tax Foundation began calculating the specific Tax Freedom Day for each individual state.
Tax Freedom Day only examines taxation, and does not account for debt and inflation as means for funding government.

  1. Debt comes with a guarantee of future repayment. Governments run at a deficit by promising creditors to service and repay debts by taxing future labor or generating revenue through other means such as sale or exploitation of state owned assets.
  2. Inflation or currency debasement increases the supply of currency. This new currency could be used to pay for government, but the increased supply results in a decrease in value of each unit of currency. As the value of currency decreases, commodity prices increase as a result.

Leap years have one day more, 29 February. This creates some bias in Tax Freedom Day charts. However, this bias is equal to roughly 1/366, which is about 0.27%.

United States[edit]

In the United States, it is annually calculated by the Tax Foundation, a Washington, D.C.-based tax research organization. In the U.S., Tax Freedom Day for 2015 is April 24, for a total average effective tax rate of 31 percent of the nation’s income. The latest that Tax Freedom Day has occurred was May 1 in 2000. In 1900, Tax Freedom Day arrived January 22, for an effective average total tax rate of 5.9 percent of the nation’s income. According to the Tax Foundation, the most important factor driving changes in Tax Freedom Day from year to year is growth in incomes, as the progressive structure of the U.S. federal tax system causes taxes as a percentage of income to rise along with inflation.
Tax Freedom Day varies among the 50 U.S. states, as incomes and state and local taxes differ from state to state. In 2015, Louisiana had the lowest total tax burden, earning enough to pay all their tax obligations by April 2. Connecticut had the heaviest tax burden – Tax Freedom Day there arrived May 13.
According to the Tax Foundation, the following is a list of Tax Freedom Days in the U.S. since 1900:[3]

Year TFD Percentage tax burden
1900 January 22 5.9%
1910 January 19 5.0%
1920 February 13 12.0%
1930 February 12 11.7%
1940 March 7 17.9%
1950 March 31 24.6%
1960 April 11 27.7%
1970 April 19 29.6%
1980 April 21 30.4%
1990 April 21 30.4%
2000 May 1 33.0%
2001 April 27 31.8%
2002 April 17 29.2%
2003 April 14 28.4%
2004 April 15 28.5%
2005 April 21 30.2%
2006 April 26 31.2%
2007 April 24 31.1%
2008 April 16 29.0%
2009 April 8 26.6%
2010 April 9 26.9%
2011 April 12 27.7%
2012 April 13 29.2%
2013 April 18 29.4%[4]
2014 April 21 30.2%[5]
2015 April 24 31%[6]