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Well I thought it was funny!

Well I thought it was funny!



How to Track Animals: A Primer on Identifying Footprints

Brett & Kate McKay | January 11, 2016

Manly SkillsOutdoors

how to identify and track animal footprints illustration

“It is hard to over-value the powers of the clever tracker. To him the trail of each animal is not a mere series of similar footprints; it is an accurate account of the creature’s life, habit, changing whims, and emotions during the portion of life whose record is in view.” –Ernest Thompson Seton, Boy Scout Handbook, 1911

The other day while hiking some muddy trails with my family, my son pointed to a set of tracks and asked me what animal had made them. “That’s easy,” I said, “those are the tracks of a whitetail deer.” “What about those?” he asked, pointing to another set of footprints. “Those are, um, hmmm, well, I’m not sure what they are,” I confessed. I realized I needed to brush up on my knowledge of animal tracks.

Learning how to track and identify the footprints of animals is an ancient and largely forgotten art — one that’s not only important for hunters, but also enhances any outdoorsman’s experience in the wild. It’s fascinating to know what creatures are sharing the woods with you, and trying to track them down by following their trail is a lot of fun. Learning how to read tracks allows you to pick up on the little dramas enacted by wildlife that usually go unnoticed by the human eye. It’s thus a skill that both deepens your understanding of nature and heightens your all-important powers of observation.

Becoming an expert tracker takes years of practice. To get you started, today we offer a primer on the basics of identifying the footprints of common animals. We’ve taken as our guides two master woodsmen of yore — Ernest Thompson Seton, one of the founders of the Boy Scouts, and Charles “Ohiyesa” Eastman, who was raised as a Sioux tribesman — as well as drawn on tips from Tom Brown Jr., one of the foremost modern trackers.

Let’s head into the woods and see what we can discover!

Where to Look for Tracks

“Never lose the chance of the first snow if you wish to become a trailer.” –Ernest Thompson Seton

Winter is primetime for animal tracking, as the prints are easy to find in the snow and can be followed for a long distance. However, as Seton explains:

“the first morning after a night’s snow fall is not so good as the second. Most creatures ‘lie up’ during the storm; the snow hides the tracks of those that do go forth; and some actually go into a ‘cold sleep’ for a day or two after a heavy downfall. But a calm, mild night following a storm is sure to offer abundant and ideal opportunity for beginning the study of the trail.”

The drawback of snow tracking is that in deep, soft snow you may find only the holes made by the animal’s feet and legs. Further accumulation and melting can also easily obscure the trail. And of course, some animals don’t come out at all during the winter because they are hibernating.

For these reasons, mud and fine, wet sand can be an even better medium, as they hold the shape of the footprint well. A mudbank stream is one of the best places to look for tracks, as it’s frequented by shore birds and waterfowl as well as animals like the raccoon and muskrat looking for food. After a rain, sand bars, ditches, and muddy gullies are also fruitful places to find the tracks of deer, possums, and other creatures. Looking over a dewy, open field in the morning can reveal the tracks creatures made in the night as well.

Whether in snow or dirt, a track is best and easiest to follow when it is freshest — before wind, rain, melting (in the case of snow), and debris have obscured the prints.

While it’s surely fun to track animals through the wilderness, it’s also enjoyable to try to find their footprints in your very own backyard (and around the trashcan!). So always be aware of your surroundings wherever you go, and you never know what you’ll see.

Learning the Tracks

In learning which tracks belong to which animals, it can help to know the basic classifications of common animal families. Simply by counting the number of toes in a footprint, you can figure out which family the creature belongs to, and from there work on narrowing down which species you’re looking at.

In this narrowing down process, it’s useful to know which animals are common to your area. As Seton explains, “In studying trails one must always keep probabilities in mind”:

“Sometimes one kind of track looks much like another; then the question is, ‘Which is the likeliest in this place.’

If I saw a jaguar track in India, I should know it was made by a leopard. If I found a leopard in Colorado, I should be sure I had found the mark of a cougar or mountain lion. A wolf track on Broadway would doubtless be the doing of a very large dog, and a St. Bernard’s footmark in the Rockies, twenty miles from anywhere, would most likely turn out to be the happen-so imprint of a gray wolf’s foot. To be sure of the marks, then, one should know all the animals that belong to the neighborhood.”

Below you’ll find illustrations of the footprints of the track classifications for the most common families of animals; they break down not only what the tracks look like when the animal is walking (which is its typical gait), but also hopping/running (which it may do when chased by a predator, or doing some chasing of its own).


house cat footprints identify animal tracks illustration

identify animal tracks illustration cougar bobcat paws

Cats leave rounded prints that show four soft, pliable, spread toes. The prints lack claws, since they’re retractable. A cat also walks in what’s called a “single register” —  its hind legs exactly track its front legs, so that it appears to only be walking with two legs, rather than four. This aids in quiet, stealthy stalking.


identify animal tracks illustration canines dog coyote

Canines have four toes like cats, but their feet are harder and their claws can be seen as they don’t retract. While the fox walks in a single register, dogs and coyotes walk in an indirect register — their hind legs land a little behind and to the side of the front print, leaving a messier track than that of a cat.


identify animal tracks illustration skunk mink weasel otter

Members of the weasel family have five toes on both their front and hind feet, though all five don’t always show in the track.

Five-Fingered Outliers

identify animal tracks illustration bear opossum raccoon

While bears, possums, and beavers don’t belong to the weasel family, their tracks are similar in that they also have five toes in both back and front. However, they differ in the flat, human-like nature of their feet.


identify animal tracks illustration chipmunk squirrel muskrat beaver

Rodents have four toes on their front feet, and five toes on their hind feet.

Hares & Rabbits

cottontail rabbit footprints identify animal tracks illustration

Rabbits have four toes on both their front and rear feet, and in almost all species the back feet leave tracks that are at least twice the size of the front.

Hoofed Animals

whitetail deer footprints identify animal tracks illustration

The tracks of hoofed animals are easy to recognize, and deer tracks are some of the most common to find in the woods. You can distinguish a doe from a buck, in that the female has sharper hoofs and a narrower foot than the male.

Tips for Following the Trail

“I will now ask you to enter the forest with me. First, scan the horizon and look deep into the blue vault above you, to adjust your nerves and the muscles of your eye, just as you do other muscles by stretching them. There is still another point. You have spread a blank upon the retina, and you have cleared the decks of your mind, your soul, for action.
It is a crisp winter morning, and upon the glistening fresh snow we see everywhere the story of the early hours — now clear and plain, now tangled and illegible — where every traveler has left his mark upon the clean, white surface for you to decipher.
The first question is: Who is he? The second: Where is he now? Around these two points you must proceed to construct your story.” –Charles Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Scout Talks, 1915

Now that you know what the tracks look like, how do you follow the trail once you’ve identified it?
When following an animal’s footprints, try to track towards the sun if possible, as the shadows will make the impressions stand out more. The sun’s position in the sky during the early morning and late afternoon will particularly enhance the tracks.

As you follow an animal’s tracks, don’t just focus on the discrete sets of prints themselves, but continually take in the trail as a whole — which may in fact be easier than finding individual footprints. For example, by looking ahead, instead of having your nose to the ground, you may see a trail of bent grass through a field. Also look for other disturbances like cracked twigs, or pebbles and leaves that have been overturned to reveal their darker, wetter undersides. If you lose the trail, place a stick by the last set of prints you discovered and then walk around it in an ever widening spiral until you pick up the trail again.

Eastman lays out other considerations for your hunt:

“It is essential to estimate as closely as you can how much of a journey you will undertake if you determine to follow a particular trail. Many factors enter into this. When you come upon the trail, you must if possible ascertain when it was made. Examine the outline; if that is undisturbed, and the loose snow left on the surface has not yet settled, the track is very fresh, as even an inexperienced eye can tell…It will also be necessary to consider the time of year. It is of no use to follow a buck when he starts out on his travels in the autumn, and with the moose or elk it is the same.”

Conclusion: What the Trail Gives — The Secrets of the Woods

Animal tracks are the alphabet of the wild — an education in their language can help you read more of the nature all around you. As Seton concludes, knowing this language opens books of the woods and its inhabitants that would otherwise be closed to you:

“There is yet another feature of trail study that gives it exceptional value — it is an account of the creature pursuing its ordinary life. If you succeeded in getting a glimpse of a fox or a hare in the woods, the chances are a hundred to one that it was aware of your presence first. They are much cleverer than we are at this sort of thing, and if they do not actually sight or sense us, they observe, and are warned by the action of some other creature that did sense us, and so cease their occupations to steal away or hide. But the snow story will tell of the life that the animal ordinarily leads — its method of searching for food, its kind of food, the help it gets from its friends, or sometimes from its rivals — and thus offers an insight into its home ways that is scarcely to be attained in any other way.

The trailer has the key to a new storehouse of nature’s secrets, another of the Sybilline books is opened to his view; his fairy godmother has indeed conferred on him a wonderful gift in opening his eyes to the foot-writing of the trail. It is like giving sight to the blind man, like the rolling away of fogs from a mountain view, and the trailer comes closer than others to the heart of the woods.
Dowered with a precious power is he,
He drinks where others sipped,
And wild things write their lives for him
In endless manuscript.”

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Smith & Wesson Model 1905 4th Change DA Revolver .32-20 Win.

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Preview YouTube video S&W Model of 1905 M&P 32-20 Revolver


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Mauser Pocket Pistols

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Preview YouTube video The Mauser Model 1914 (Semi) Automatic Pistol

Preview YouTube video Mauser Pocket Pistol 25ACP 6.35mm Scarce With Unit Markings – Texas Gun Blog

Mauser Pocket Pistols – an Introduction

(Revised 14 Feb 2005)
By A. Winthrop
Photographs by Ed Buffaloe
unless otherwise noted

6.35mm Mauser 1910 "Sidelatch"Identifying your Mauser pocket pistol can be a little tricky. It could fall into one of four categories: a Mauser Pocket Pistol 1910; a Mauser Pocket Pistol 1914 (or its slightly modified 1934 version), a Mauser Vest Pocket Pistol or the Mauser HSc.

The Mauser Pocket Pistol 1910, somewhat larger and with a longer barrel than competing pocket pistols and therefore considered more reliable and accurate, was chambered only for 6.35mm (.25 ACP). There were two basic versions of this pistol: one made between early 1911 and July 1913, and another, updated version introduced in January 1914. Those made before 1914 have serial numbers between 1 and 61,000 and those made during or after 1914 have serial numbers between 61,000 and 152,000 (1914-1917) and between 200,000 and 403,000 (1919-1934). The latter figures include 1914 models in both 6.35mm and the larger 7 .65mm (.32 ACP), added to Mauser’s pocket pistol offerings in July 1914. No numbers are known to exist between 152,000 and 200,000 for the 6.35mm*.
6.35mm Mauser 1914 Pocket PistolThe pre-1914 versions have come to be known as the “Side Latch” or “First” models. The side plate on these pistols incorporates a latch that allows the plate, trigger\sear assembly and trigger bar and spring to be removed, without having to remove the slide. The pistol had a very good finish and was from the beginning a commercial success in Europe, North America and elsewhere. Mauser reported the following total sales figures: 1911, 11,012 sold; 1912, 30 ,291; 1913, 18,856. These early 1910s are scarce and it is very difficult to find parts for them. Even the largest North American parts dealers failed to identify my early 1910 and none had parts for it.
In July 1914, Mauser came out with the second of its pocket pistol line, a scaled-up version of the 1910 chambered for 7 .65mm. This version was revised slightly in 1934, allowing the use of stamped rather than more costly machined internal parts and sporting a curved, more comfortable grip. Otherwise, the 1934 models were nearly identical in construction to the 1914s. Numbering of the 6.35mm 1934s started around 403,000 and about 25,000 were produced. Production of the 1934s in both calibers continued until 1939.
At about the same time the scaled-up 1914 came out, Mauser modified its smaller 1910s to conform in design (but not in size) to the new 1914s, incorporating improvements in both models that were originally realized during testing of a Mauser 9mm 1912\1914 automatic military model. The 1910s produced in 1914 and later, sometimes called the “Second” or “Neues Modell” (“New Model”) 1910, do not have the side latch of the earlier 1910s and the barrel retaining (or takedown) rod is secured by a spring catch on the underside of the front of the frame. The early 1910’s barrel retaining rod was held in place by a slot cut into the underside of the barrel, just behind the muzzle.
Because of the changes in the way the barrel is retained, pre- and post-1914 6.35mm barrels are not interchangeable. In fact, few if any parts of the 6.35mm 1910s made during or after 1914 are interchangeable with those of the early 1910s because of a number of other design modifications (different sized striker, different trigger bar pivot design, different trigger sear design, etc.) Exceptions may be some springs (recoil, et al), and grip screws.
The 1914\1934 models in 7.65mm as well as in 6.35mm are often incorrectly referred to as simply 1910s, without distinguishing them from the earlier 6.35mm 1910s. For example, the National Rifle Association’s (NRA) Pistols and Revolvers Assembly manual uses a picture of a scaled-up 1914 model to illustrate its section on the 1910 and discusses the two models as if they were the same. However, since the 1914\1934 model design is derived directly from that of the 1910, all models are similar in external appearance, the size differences notwithstanding. The 7.65mm 1914\1934s are 6 .1″ in length and 4.5″ high, while the 6.35mm 1910s (both the 1914 and pre-1914 versions) are 5.4″ in length and 4″ high.
A line drawing of the early “Side Latch” 1910 can be found on the web site of a Canadian gun parts dealer, Marstar, under its catalog heading, Mauser Pocket Pistol 1909\1910. The exploded view of the gun’s parts linked to the drawing, however, is of a post-1914 version of the 6.35mm 1910. So if you have a 1910 and it matches the drawing in EVERY detail, including the latch shown on the side plate (left side) above the trigger, then the parts depicted in the exploded view won’t do you much good. However, if your gun does not have the side latch, then the parts in the exploded view will match yours and Marstar can provide you with a full range of parts.
Properly matched profiles of Mauser’s pocket pistol offerings and exploded parts views can be found in the archive section of Gerhard Schoenbauer’s excellent website:  Production information in German (D) and English (E) on all Mauser’s pocket pistols accompany the model profiles.

Mauser WTP I

Mauser’s Vest Pocket Pistol was patented in 1918 and introduced for sale in 1921 to take advantage of a rapidly growing market for VERY small pistols for personal defence. The WTP (Westen Taschen Pistole) fitted into the palm of the hand and was chambered only for 6.35mm. It came out in two models: the WTP I and the WTP II, the latter coming into production in 1938 and featuring smaller, improved grips, a relocated safety and a “signal pin”, like those on Mauser’s larger models, that protruded through the rear of the slide to indicate by sight or feel that the striker was in firing position. The earlier model’s black, hard rubber grips were replaced after 1938 with brown plastic grips. There were about 50, 000 WTP I’s produced (on sale in 1926 for 36 Reichsmarks) and far fewer WTP II’s made, as production ceased in 1940 to make way for military manufacture.If your gun is a WTP  I, its grips stop well below the slide and it is marked “W.T.P. – 6.35 – D.R.G.”. If the grips go nearly all the way up to the slide and the gun is marked “T. – 6.35” you have a WTP II.
Before moving on to the last of the Mauser pockets it should be noted that in 1922 Mauser changed its name to Mauserwerke A-G from Waffenfabrik Mauser A-G and this change is reflected in the identifying slide markings.  During this transition, the Mauser banner, which appears on the side plate, was also changed but only slightly. Some Mauser pockets made during the transition have no Mauser banner, perhaps reflecting some indecision on what the new design was to be.

Photograph by Ed Harris

The Mauser HSc came out in 1939 and was produced by Mauser at least until 1946. The HSc was not derived from Mauser’s earlier pocket pistols.  It was a totally new design, being more streamlined in appearance. Its quality is considered to be inferior to the 1910s and 1914s but still good. It was chambered for 7.65mm (.32). HSc serial numbers started at 700,000 and ran to around 952,000. After the war, during the French occupation, about 17,000 more were produced from leftover parts and numbered sequentially up to about 970,000.Those HSc Mausers in the 745,338-781,415 serial number range that were marked with the Eagle/135, about 4,000 in all, had the high-polish blue finish of earlier commercial models and are among the most prized by collectors. Later military models, marked with the Eagle/135 Waffenamt (801,145 – 885,126 serial number range; about 31,000 made), were left unpolished before blueing and show machining marks.
The Eagle/N proof mark indicates commercial production. There were only about 30,000 of these made for the civilian market as most firearms manufacture during the war years was dedicated to the military or police. This was especially true of HSc-production and even most commercially produced HScs found their way into the military as they were purchased privately by higher-ranking officers who by 1944 were required to wear pistols instead of the traditional sword or dagger.
As for Mauser pocket pistol value, I have read on the Web that the range for the post-1914 6.35mm 1910s runs between about US$150 for one in average condition to US$450 for one in excellent condition. This is probably true for the scaled-up 1914\1934s and for the HSc. Special military or other markings can boost these values greatly. The early 1910s are very scarce so my guess is that a Mauser collector might pay somewhat more for these. The early 1910s originally sold in North America for US$13.50 each, according to a Mauser rifle and pistol brochure published in 1912.
While the monetary value of most Mauser pistols is not very high, every source I have come across in two months of on- and off-line research says that Mauser 1910s and 1914s are among the best made and finished pistols ever produced. This is why any of the Mauser pocket pistols are worth the effort to restore.
With only a little work, I got my early 1910 looking and working great. After carefully sliding its wrap-around walnut grip off to the rear of the frame, I cleaned it gently with white car polish, wiped it dry and applied a few coats of high quality car paste wax to it, making it look nearly new. The metal parts just needed cleaning with a little Hoppes No.9 and then I gave everything a light coat of oil before reassembly.
My task was made easy because the pistol had been well maintained (and little used, judging by the internal\external condition) by my father and its two previous owners, a father and son, both German officers who carried the pistol in WWI and WWII. The gun was surrendered to my father by the son, an army captain, shortly after his US Army 155mm gun battalion moved into a German village during the early days of occupation following the war.
By far the best single Internet source of images (side views, field stripped and complete parts layouts) and historical\tech information on Mauser’s 1910s\14s\34s and WTPs is the Web site of Gerhard Schoenbauer, an Austrian collector ( Mr. Schoenbauer’s downloadable .JPG images are scans of pistols from his own collection. Some of Mr. Schoenbauer’s historical\tech information has been incorporated here. Mr. Schoenbauer’s Web site also offers images and information (in English as well as in German) on many other handguns in his collection.
Marstar’s exploded view can also be of help to you in disassembling and reassembling your gun if it is a 1914 or 1934 model and they also have images of and parts for the HSc. And the NRA’s Pistols and Revolvers Assemblymanual will be even more helpful as it also includes images, parts lists and other information on the HSc and the Vest Pocket, as well on the 1910s and 1914\1934s. It costs about US$14.
Other references on Mauser pistols include Roy Pender’s Mauser Pocket Pistols: 1910-1946; Walther H.B. Smith’s Mauser Rifles and Pistols, and Pistols of the World by Ian V. Hogg and John Weeks. Pender’s book is out of print but suddenly in GREAT demand, perhaps an indication of collectors’ growing interest in Mauser pocket pistols. Pender’s son told me that his mother and uncle are trying to reprint the book, which was selling at gun shows last fall for $100. Rutgers Book Center, Highland Park, NJ, is offering copies at $200 each! Rutgers, a gun book dealer, has most good publications on Mauser pistols and rifles at reasonable prices.
Aside from Marstar (, you might find parts for your gun at SARCO, a New Jersey parts dealer; World Wide Gun Parts, San Diego, CA; Milarm, a Canadian gun parts dealer, and Gun Parts Corp., Hurley, New York.
Jack First of Rapid City, SD (contact information below), the only person able to identify my early Mauser 1910 correctly, is also a good parts source but he is not on the Web. Thomas Heller (contact information below) specializes in parts for Mauser and other European handguns.  Like Jack, Tom is not on the Web.
I offer this information because a lot of people on the Web helped me in my search for information on my Mauser pistol and how to find parts for it and I would similarly like to help others. These people were mostly gun dealers and collectors so they know what they’re talking about. Still, it is always a good idea to keep an open and critical mind because even the experts are sometimes wrong. And since I’m no expert, view my information with an especially critical eye. I’ve checked and double-checked my information but there still may be errors. If you find any, please let me know.
Below are spec sheets for two of the pocket pistols mentioned above as Mauser presented them in a 1912 sales brochure (the early 6.35mm 1910) and a 1914 owner’s manual (for both the 6.35mm and 7.65mm 1914 Mauser Pocket Pistol models). I have also included specs for both WTP models as they appear on Mr. Schoenbauer’s Web site. Should you run across similar information for the other Mausers discussed here, I would appreciate receiving it.

Also below, is a guide to on- and off-line reference materials and parts dealers.


MAUSER POCKET PISTOL 1910 – 6.35mm (.25 ACP)

  1. “First” or “Side Latch” model (early 1911-July 1913); about 61,000 made.
“Second” or “New” model (1914-39)
2. Manufacture date: From early 1911 (Revised in 1914, 1934)
3. Action: Blowback\striker
4. Length: 5 1\2″ (Barrel: 3 1\8″)
5. Height: 4″
6. Pistol weight, magazine empty: 15 oz
7. Pistol weight, magazine full : 17 oz
8. Empty magazine weight: 1.23 oz
9. Thickness: .85″
10. Length of line of site: 4.6″
11. Cartridge: 6.35mm (.25 ACP)
12. Weight bullet: 49 grains
13. Charge of nitro powder: 1.23 grains
14. Muzzle velocity: 750 feet\sec.
15. Muzzle energy  :  61 foot\lbs.
16. Penetration:
in pine at 10 yds., 2 1\2″
in pine at 25 yds., 2 1\4″
17. “Guaranteed” shot pattern:
at 10 yds., 2″ circle
at 25 yds., 6″ circle
18. Nine-round magazine (ten-shot if one in chamber).
19. Wrap-around walnut grips.
20. Markings (These can vary):
a. Manufacturer: Waffenfabrik Mauser A-G.Oberndorf A.N.Mauser’s Patent
b. Serial number: Stamped on back end of frame, front left
side of slide. Last three numbers only on takedown rod catch
and internal parts.
c. Mauser logo stamped on side plate, left side of gun, above grip.
d. One small crown, over another small crown, over a U on front
right side of slide.

MAUSER POCKET PISTOL 1914\34 – 7.65mm (.32 ACP)

  1. First introduced in 1914 (Revised in 1934)
2. Manufacture date: July 1914 to 1939
3. Action: Blowback\striker
4. Length: 6.1″
5. Height: 4.5″
6. Pistol weight, magazine empty: 21 oz
7. Pistol weight, magazine full : 23 oz
8. Empty magazine weight: 1.75 oz
9. Thickness: 1.1″
10. Length of line of site: 5″
11. Cartridge: 7.65mm (.32 ACP)
12. Weight bullet: 74 grains
13. Charge of nitro powder: 3.08 grains
14. Muzzle velocity: 1142 feet\sec.
15. Muzzle energy: 148 foot\lbs.
16. Penetration:
in pine at 10 yds., 4.5″
in pine at 25 yds., 4.4″
in pine at 50 yds., 4.25″
17. Shot pattern:
at 10 yds., 1.4″  circle
at 25 yds., 3.4″  circle
at 50 yds., 5.75″ circle
18. Eight-round magazine (nine-shot if one in chamber).
19. Wrap-around walnut grips.
20. Markings (These can vary):
a. Manufacturer: Waffenfabrik Mauser A-G.Oberndorf A.N.Mauser’s Patent
b. Serial number: Stamped on back end of frame, front left
side of slide. Last three numbers only on takedown rod catch
and internal parts.
c. Mauser logo stamped on side plate, left side of gun, above grip.
d. One small crown, over another small crown, over a U on front
right side of slide.


System………  Self-cocking pistol with mass system and firing pin
Cartridges…..  6
Caliber……..  .25 ACP
Barrel Length..  60.7mm, 6 grooves right hand twisted
Weight Empty…  340g
Total Length…  115mm
Total Height…  79.5mm
Total Width….  20.6mm
Trigger……..  Single action
Sight……….  Fixed, groove with notch
Safety………  Lever
Finish………  Blued
Grips……….  Hard rubber


System………  Self-cocking pistol with mass system and firing pin
Cartridges…..  6
Caliber……..  .25 ACP
Barrel Length..  51.5mm, 6 grooves right hand turning
Weight Empty…  285g
Total Length…  102.4mm
Total Height…  71mm
Total Width….  21mm
Trigger……..  Single action
Sight……….  Fixed, groove with notch
Safety………  Lever and magazine-safety
Finish………  Blued
Grips……….  Plastic

MAUSER HSc – 7.65mm (.32 ACP)

Calibre: .32 ACP (7.65 mm)
Action: Hammer – Double or Single Action
Overall Length:   162 mm
Height:           110 mm
Width over grips: 28 mm
Length of barrel: 85 mm
Distance between front and rear sights: 128 mm
Weight of pistol with magazine: 585 grams approx.
Weight of magazine:  50 grams approx.
Magazine capacity:   8 rounds
Weight of cartridge: 4.7 grams
Weight of powder charge: 0.16 grams
Muzzle velocity: 290 m/sec
Number of parts completely stripped: 40




  • Roy Pender , Mauser Pocket Pistols: 1910-1946
  • Belford & Dunlop (1980), The Mauser Self-Loading Pistol
  • Walter H.B. Smith, Mauser Rifles and Pistols
  • Breathed & Schroeder, System Mauser
  • R.J.Berger, Know your Broomhandle
  • Korn,  Mauser Gewehre und Patente
  • Ian V. Hogg & John Weeks, Pistols of the World
  • Joseph J. Schroeder, Gun Collector’s Digest
  • Jan Still, AXIS Pistols
  • Compiled by John Olson, The Famous Automatic Pistols of Europe – Vol. I,   Published by JOLEX
Gear & Stuff

Ridiculous Army / Cavalry Helmet

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I could not imagine staying on a horse during a charge.

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Let alone fighting with this thing on my noggin!
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Plus this is the enlisted model. The officers model must of been even worse.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bavarian military Pickelhaube

Prussian police leather Pickelhaube

The Pickelhaube (plural Pickelhauben; from the German Pickel, “point” or “pickaxe”, and Haube, “bonnet”, a general word for “headgear”), also Pickelhelm, was a spiked helmet worn in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by German militaryfirefighters, and police.
Although typically associated with the Prussian army who adopted it in 1842-43,[1] the helmet was widely imitated by other armies during this period.[2]



Otto von Bismarck wearing a cuirassier officer’s metal Pickelhaube

The Pickelhaube was originally designed in 1842 by King Frederick William IV of Prussia,[3] perhaps as a copy of similar helmets that were adopted at the same time by the Russian military.[4]
It is not clear whether this was a case of imitation, parallel invention, or if both were based on the earlier Napoleonic cuirassier. The early Russian type (known as “The Helmet of Yaroslav Mudry“) was also used by cavalry, which had used the spike as a holder for a horsehair plume in full dress, a practice also followed with some Prussian models (see below).


Prussian infantry Pickelhaube in 1845 (at right)

Frederick William IV introduced the Pickelhaube for use by the majority of Prussian infantry on October 23, 1842 by a royal cabinet order.[5]
The use of the Pickelhaube spread rapidly to other German principalities. Oldenburg adopted it by 1849, Baden by 1870, and in 1887, the Kingdom of Bavaria was the last German state to adopt the Pickelhaube (since the Napoleonic Wars, they had had their own design of helmet, called the Raupenhelm (de), a Tarleton helmet).
Amongst other European armies, that of Sweden adopted the Prussian version of the spiked helmet in 1845[6] and the Russian Army in 1846[7] (although see above for Russian/Prussian controversy).
From the second half of the 19th century onwards, the armies of a number of nations besides Russia (including BoliviaColombiaChileEcuadorMexicoPortugalNorwaySweden, and Venezuela) adopted the Pickelhaube or something very similar.[8]
The popularity of this headdress in Latin America arose from a period during the early 20th century when military missions from Imperial Germany were widely employed to train and organize national armies.
Peru was the first to use the helmet for the Peruvian Army when some helmets were shipped to the country in the 1870s, but during the War of the Pacific the 6th Infantry Regiment “Chacabuco” of the Chilean Army became the first Chilean military unit to use them when its personnel used the helmets—which were seized from the Peruvians—in their red French-inspired uniforms.[9]
These sported the Imperial German eagles but in the 1900s the eagles were replaced by the national emblems of the countries that used them.

Tsarist Russian Pickelhauben, with detachable plumes, mid 19th century

The Russian version initially had a horsehair plume fitted to the end of the spike, but this was later discarded in some units. The Russian spike was topped with a grenade motif. At the beginning of the Crimean War, such helmets were common among infantry and grenadiers, but soon fell out of place in favour of the fatiguecap.
After 1862 the spiked helmet ceased to be generally worn by the Russian Army, although it was retained until 1914 by the Cuirassier regiments of the Imperial Guard and the Gendarmerie.
The Russians prolonged the history of the pointed military headgear with their own cloth Budenovka in the early 20th century.


The Pickelhaube also influenced the design of the British army Home Service helmet, as well as the custodian helmet still worn by police in England and Wales.
The linkage between Pickelhaube and Home Service helmet was however not a direct one, since the British headdress was higher, had only a small spike and was made of stiffened cloth over a cork framework, instead of leather.
Both the United States Army and Marine Corps wore helmets of the British pattern for full dress between 1881 and 1902.


The basic Pickelhaube was made of hardened (boiled) leather, given a glossy-black finish, and reinforced with metal trim (usually plated with gold or silver for officers) that included a metal spike at the crown.
Early versions had a high crown, but the height gradually was reduced and the helmet became more fitted in form, in a continuing process of weight-reduction and cost-saving.
In 1867 a further attempt at weight reduction by removing the metal binding of the front peak, and the metal reinforcing band on the rear of the crown (which also concealed the stitched rear seam of the leather crown), did not prove successful.
Some versions of the Pickelhaube worn by German artillery units employed a ball-shaped finial rather than the pointed spike. Prior to the outbreak of World War I in 1914 detachable black or white plumes were worn with the Pickelhaube in full dress by German generals, staff officers, dragoon regiments, infantry of the Prussian Guard and a number of line infantry regiments as a special distinction.
This was achieved by unscrewing the spike (a feature of all Pickelhauben regardless of whether they bore a plume) and replacing it with a tall metal plume-holder known as a trichter.
For musicians of these units, and also for Bavarian Artillery and an entire cavalry regiment of the Saxon Guard, this plume was red.
Aside from the spike finial, perhaps the most recognizable feature of the Pickelhaube was the ornamental front plate, which denoted the regiment’s province or state.
The most common plate design consisted of a large, spread-winged eagle, the emblem used by Prussia. Different plate designs were used by Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, and the other German states. The Russians used the traditional double-headed eagle.
German military Pickelhauben also mounted two round, colored cockades behind the chinstraps attached to the sides of the helmet.
The right cockade, the national cockade, was red, black and white. The left cockade was used to denote the state of the soldier (Prussia-black and white; Bavaria-white and blue; etc.).
All-metal versions of the Pickelhaube were worn mainly by cuirassiers, and often appear in portraits of high-ranking military and political figures (such as Otto von Bismarck, pictured above).
These helmets were sometimes referred to as lobster-tail helmets, due to their distinctive articulated neck guard.
The design of these is based on cavalry helmets in common use since the 16th century, but with some features taken from the leather helmets.
The version worn by the Prussian Gardes du Corps was of tombac (copper and zinc alloy) with silver mountings. That worn by the cuirassiers of the line since 1842 was of polished steel with brass mountings,


1892 Überzug on 1895 Pickelhauben

U.S. Marine Corps helmet of similar form, 1881–1902

In 1892, a light brown cloth helmet cover, the M1892 Überzug, became standard issue for all Pickelhauben for manoeuvres and active service.
The Überzug was intended to protect the helmet from dirt and reduce its combat visibility, as the brass and silver fittings on the Pickelhaube proved to be highly reflective.[11] Regimental numbers were sewn or stenciled in red (green from August 1914) onto the front of the cover, other than in units of the Prussian Guards, which never carried regimental numbers or other adornments on the Überzug.
With exposure to the sun, the Überzug faded into a tan shade. In October 1916 the colour was changed to be feldgrau (field grey), although by that date the plain metal Stahlhelm was standard issue for most troops.

In World War I

All helmets produced for the infantry before and during 1914 were made of leather. As the war progressed, Germany’s leather stockpiles dwindled. After extensive imports from South America, particularly Argentina, the German government began producing ersatz Pickelhauben made of other materials.
In 1915, some Pickelhauben began to be made from thin sheet steel. However, the German high command needed to produce an even greater number of helmets, leading to the usage of pressurized felt and even paper to construct Pickelhauben.
During the early months of World War I, it was soon discovered that the Pickelhaube did not measure up to the demanding conditions of trench warfare.
The leather helmets offered virtually no protection against shell fragments and shrapnel and the conspicuous spike made its wearer a target.
These shortcomings, combined with material shortages, led to the introduction of the simplified model 1915 helmet described above, with a detachable spike.
In September 1915 it was ordered that the new helmets were to be worn without spikes, when in the front line.[12]
Beginning in 1916, the Pickelhaube was slowly replaced by a new German steel helmet (the Stahlhelm) intended to offer greater head protection from shell fragments.
The German steel helmet decreased German head wound fatalities by 70%.
After the adoption of the Stahlhelm the Pickelhaube was reduced to limited ceremonial wear by senior officers away from the war zones; plus the Leibgendarmerie S.M. des Kaisers whose role as an Imperial/Royal escort led them to retain peacetime full dress throughout the war.
With the collapse of the German Empire in 1918, the Pickelhaube ceased to be part of the military uniform, and even the police adopted shakos of a Jäger style.
In modified forms the new Stahlhelm helmet would continue to be worn by German troops into World War II.

Current use

The Pickelhaube is still part of the parade/ceremonial uniform of the Life Guards of Sweden, the National Republican Guard (GNR) of Portugal, the military academies of ChileColombiaVenezuela and
Ecuador. the Military College of Bolivia, the Army Central Band and Army School Bands of Chile, the Chilean Army‘s 1st Cavalry and 1st Artillery Regiments, and the Presidential Guard Battalion and National Police of Colombia.
Traffic police in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan also use a form of the Pickelhaube. The modern Romanian Gendarmerie (Jandarmeria Româna) maintain a mounted detachment who wear a white plumed Pickelhaube of a model dating from the late 19th century, as part of their ceremonial uniform.

Cultural icon

As early as in 1844, the poet Heinrich Heine mocked the Pickelhaube as a symbol of reaction and an unsuitable head-dress. He cautioned that the spike could easily “draw modern lightnings down on your romantic head”.[15]
The poem was part of his political satire on the contemporary monarchy, national chauvinism, and militarism entitled Germany. A Winter’s Tale.
In the lead-up to the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, a moulded plastic version of the Pickelhaube was available as a fanware article.
The common model was colored in the black-red-gold of the current German flag, with a variety of other colours also available.
The spiked helmet remained part of a clichéd mental picture of Imperial Germany as late as the inter-war period even after the actual headdress had ceased to be worn.
This was possibly because of the extensive use of the pickelhaube in Allied propaganda during World War I, although the helmet had been a well known icon of Imperial Germany even prior to 1914. Pickelhauben were popular targets for Allied souvenir hunters during the early months of the war.
A World War I German Pickelhaube was used as a prop in the television series Hogan’s Heroes set during the second world war; it was supposedly issued to the prison camp commander during the first war and he kept it atop his desk.
It appeared as one element of the show’s “logo”, shown (with a U.S. Army officer’s service cap hanging from its spike) as background for the show’s end credits.

Anti Civil Rights ideas & "Friends" Cops



Pity there are not in California!

Image result for The Crossroads Pawn and Audio in Little River, S.C
Here is their address for folks in the neighborhood!
The Crossroads Pawn and Audio in Little River, S.C

All About Guns Fieldcraft

When Bears Attack — Top Sidearms to Carry in Bear Country by PHIL MASSARO

As an outdoorsman, I enjoy being afield in all sorts of capacities. While hunting is one of my favorite pastimes, fishing and hiking are a wonderful means of spending time with friends and family and living in close proximity to both the Catskill and Adirondack mountains, there is ample opportunity for both of those activities.
I am also, by trade, a Professional Land Surveyor, so my work hours are often spent in the remote wilderness areas. Here in Upstate New York we have a very healthy black bear population, and highway sightings are quickly becoming a regular occurrence, as are the classic raids on bird feeders and garbage cans alike.
When I head afield, I nearly always carry one form of sidearm or another, and while the truly dangerous encounters are definitely a rarity, I feel better knowing I can protect my loved ones and coworkers should the event unfold.
Now, the black bear is – generally speaking – a rather docile creature, and most of the time it will make every attempt to run away from man.
However, should you have the misfortune of getting between a sow and her cubs, or perhaps meet a cantankerous old boar, the black bear certainly has the equipment to rearrange your anatomy, and even possibly render your birth certificate null and void.
I’ve been privileged enough to take a couple of black bears – in both Quebec and New York – and have seen many more while at work and play.
His cousin, the brown bear, is an entirely different story; when a brown bear means business you need to stop the threat and stop it fast, by any means necessary.
Personally, I’ve only seen a grizzly bear from the comfortable confines of a vehicle, but that boar in Yellowstone Park made a lasting impression. I have yet to set foot in Alaska, but I have many friends and colleagues who either live there, or have significant hunting experience in the 49th state, where encounters with brown bears can honestly represent the hunter becoming the hunted.
With respect to the brownies, I have reached out to the bear guides, residents and hunters for their wisdom and experience on the matter, to find out exactly which sidearms they favor and why.

The author’s well-worn, and well-loved Ruger Blackhawk in .45 Colt is a perfect handgun for bear country.

Now before we take a look at particular models and calibers, let’s get one basic premise out of the way: when the excrement hits the oscillator, any gun is better than no gun. Personally, I do my best to avoid any encounter that could turn ugly, but that’s not always the case.
I remember clearly, back in 2002, while surveying in the foothills of the Berkshires a young employee came running up from the point he was supposed to locate, toward the survey instrument I was running.
His eyes were as wide as saucers, and he was taking strides twice as long as his normal gait would produce. “Phil, I can’t locate that corner; there’s a ****** bear down there!” Now, as surveyors, we carry machetes to cut the brush in between our survey stations, and we are rather proficient with them.
However, the realization that you might have to use one to defend against a couple-hundred pounds of teeth and fangs doesn’t exactly make one feel like Zorro; in fact, I looked down at it and said to myself: This is gonna hurt. I’d have gladly traded it for a snub-nose .38 Special.
This was a glaring example of surprise; this area, while remote, rugged and wooded, wasn’t known for its bear population, very few had ever been seen there, but that one bear had my employee’s undivided attention.
So the point is simple; a wonderful collection of pistols at home won’t do you any good, you’ll have to make do with what you have, Like the Boy Scout motto says, Be Prepared.

Ursus americanus – the black bear.

The author’s well-worn, and well-loved Ruger Blackhawk in .45 Colt is a perfect handgun for bear country.

Let’s get my own choices out of the way first. If I know ahead of time that I’m heading into black bear country, I like to carry my big handgun: a Ruger Blackhawk, chambered in .45 Colt, stainless finish with a 7 ½-inch barrel.
It was the first handgun I ever purchased, and I put a considerable amount of thought into it. That long pipe makes for a heavier gun, but I’m OK with that because the additional sighting distance and small velocity gain are both appreciated.
The Blackhawk is tough as nails, and while it may not have the prestige of a Colt Single Action Army, it is utterly dependable. Equipped with piano wire springs, the wisely designed transfer bar and adjustable sights, I am very confident with this pistol in hand.
The .45 Colt makes a formidable handgun cartridge, especially in a pistol as strong as the Blackhawk, where the pressures and velocities can be ramped up a bit. My gun will push the strong 300-grain hollow points to just under 1,200 fps, and that’s a formula that can end a confrontation.
My gun likes the Hornady XTPs best, and I feel confident making vital hits out to 40 yards or so with this combination. It’s certainly not the lightest sidearm – weighing in at just over 3 pounds, fully loaded in its holster – but when I’m forced to enter bear country, I have absolutely no worries.

The 7 ½-inch  barrel makes for a bit more cumbersome handgun, but the author feels the accuracy is well worth it.

My other handgun, my day-to-day gun, is a well-worn Smith & Wesson Model 36, in .38 Special. It has a 1 7/8-inch barrel and a five-shot cylinder – in the classic snub-nosed configuration – and wears a set of Pachmayr grips, which feel better than the standard J-Frame grips in my hands. Is it a powerhouse, as a bear cartridge?
No, probably not, but I would feel much better with this gun – it’s easily concealable, doesn’t weigh a whole lot, nor take up a lot of room – than with no gun at all. With 158-grain bullets moving at nearly 800 fps, this probably represents – along with the 9mm Luger – the lower end of the spectrum, as far as a defensive bear gun goes.

Although lighter than what one would think of as bear protection, the author’s .38 Special is extremely compact, lightweight and portable.

A good .357 Magnum – and I really like the Kimber K6s – will definitely come in handy. The cartridge will push a 180-grain bullet to a respectable 1,300 fps, and that little Kimber has a lot to offer.
Lightweight and well-balanced, I had a chance to spend a bit of time with this wheelgun at the SHOT Show in Las Vegas.
Its lack of weight had me cringing at first, expecting some wrist-wrenching recoil, but I was pleasantly surprised with the manageability of the K6s. With a 3-inch barrel and a six-shot cylinder combining for a weight of just 25 ounces, this gun was made to be both carried and shot.

A Smith & Wesson Model 29, in .44 Remington Magnum – completely in the vein of Dirty Harry – still makes an excellent choice for the bear woods.

My buddy Marty Groppi – who enjoys the famous trout streams of Upstate New York – carries a Smith & Wesson Model 29 in the classic .44 Magnum, a combination that will most definitely save your bacon.
For those not familiar with this gun, think ‘Dirty Harry.’ The .44 Magnum is definite bear medicine.
Again, please keep in mind that we only have black bears to contend with here in New York. The grizzly and brown bears are a completely different story.

Dick Casull’s brainchild improves the ballistics of the .45 Colt – even in modern handguns – and provides an entirely different performance level for those who can handle it.

Ursus Arctos – the grizzly bear

A grizzly bear is a formidable foe, having no issue whatsoever proving its dominance over human beings. In Alaska, meat is often removed from a kill site via a frame pack and two strong legs, and all that blood creates a scent trail like a flashing All-you-can-eat buffet advertisement.
In the springtime, when the streams are populated with fishermen, the bears are coming out of hibernation and are ravenous. Young cubs are emerging for the first time, and mothers are ultra-protective. A sidearm is a very smart idea. I’ve reached out for three gentlemen – all of whom I call a friend – for advice and a few experiences regarding their encounters.

Loaded with good ammunition, either of these Smith & Wesson .44 Magnums will make excellent bear medicine.

I’m sure that by now you’ve all heard about famous Alaskan bear guide Phil Shoemaker ( , who thwarted a grizzly attack with a Smith & Wesson 9mm automatic, loaded with Buffalo Bore hard cast ammunition. Phil has over three decades of experience guiding hunters and fishermen, and understands their habits as well as anyone else alive.
To recap quickly, Phil and his husband and wife fishing clients were walking through some thick brush to approach the stream they wanted to fish, when they heard a deep ‘woof’ and realized they had a bear close and angry. Long story short, Phil was forced to put the grizzly down.

He normally carries a .44 Magnum but opted for the 9mm that day. When I asked him for his thoughts on carry guns for bear country, Phil related the following: Phil, I have always said that carrying any handgun for bear protection is similar to wearing a life jacket in a boat, or parachute in a plane. They only work if you have them with you.
In that vein, and considering the real vs. imaginary threat posed by bears, a familiar 9mm loaded with non-expanding bullets is a lot better than a heavy .44 or .500 you left at home or are not completely proficient with.” From one Phil to another, sage advice.
Just as with dangerous game rifles, using a cartridge that is too big to allow for proper shot placement isn’t a wise idea; shot placement is everything.

Cork Graham’s rig. Photo Courtesy: Cork Graham

Cork Graham ( , a fellow writer, hunter, and Alaska resident – not to mention an actor on the Discovery Channel – had a bit of a different perspective.

In Alaska, we not only have to deal with the common two-legged variety of vermin found in every place in the world, but also the large, four-legged beasts that can either kill and trample you with their hooves, or rip you apart with their claws and teeth; it’s the latter which draw hunters to the Last Frontier with high-power, large caliber rifles.
Now, my colleague and fellow Alaskan Phil Shoemaker has effectively defended himself with a 9mm against a charging brown bear, but I prefer to carry a .45 ACP with me as my round.
It doesn’t kick as much as my .44 Rem Mag in a JP Sauer six-shooter that I used to carry on remote gold mining operations, and in a M&P Shield and Glock 21, it also serves as my concealed carry. Regarding my loads.
I’m partial to a 230 grain Federal Hydra-Shok jacketed hollow point staggered with 230-grain lead cast bullet, one following the other, the first round out of the magazine a Hydra-Shok.
I carry both in a Blackhawk Alaska Guide Holster in the field, and in a Galco leather CCW holster under my belt in town: since being on TV, I learned that stalkers can be just as dangerous a charging bear.
As a retired, longtime USMC colonel buddy of mine reminded me a few weeks ago, “you should be carrying, always.”

The .45 Colt (L) and .454 Casull (R). The Casull is an updated and slightly elongated version of the .45 Colt, fully capable of firing .45 Colt ammunition. The reverse is not true.

My colleague and friend Bryce Towsley ( is a veteran gun writer who has considerable experience with bears of all sorts.
He has spent more than a bit of time in pursuit of bears, hogs, and other game animals with a handgun, in addition to time spent in the Alaskan game fields. When I asked him for his insight, he was kind enough to respond in detail.

“There is a lot of nonsense out on the internet from people who have never seen a bear and have probably never cut up a dead critter to see what a bullet will do.
I have been involved in stopping several black bears intent on doing us damage and have stood two brown bear charges without shooting; although in one of them I probably should have pulled the trigger.
The black bears have been stopped with pistols, rifles, shotguns and once with an ax. (I have killed or watched others kill several with an ax when I was guiding. This one took exception.) I have skinned three browns, two grizzlies and more black bears than I care to remember.
Any bear is a big, tough critter and to stop them you will need to penetrate and break stuff like big bones or skulls. 
“A powerful handgun with a tough, deep penetrating bullet is the key. It’s also probably a one or two shot deal, so firepower is irrelevant.
Those who think they can empty their Glock into a charging bear are fools. No matter what anybody says, Shoemaker got lucky with that 9mm on the bear.
I have seen that cartridge fail horribly on black bears and hogs. The result was a dead dog with one of the bears and almost a dead friend with one of the hogs.
If I had not shot the hog with a .44 Magnum I think it would have ended very badly. I know Phil has seen more bears killed than I ever will, but he got lucky. My rule of thumb is the minimum is 4-3-1. At least .40 caliber, 300 grains and 1,000 fps. More is always better and the bullet is the key. No semi-auto makes the grade except perhaps the .50 AE, but most ammo for that fails due to bullets. I have a buddy who guided a hunter with a .50 AE to a brown in the late eighties when it came out and it was a disaster. He saved them both, barely, with his .338 rifle. 

The Freedom Arms Model 83, in .454 Casull, in a serious piece of gear. It will drive a 300-grain bullet to over 1,600 fps.

“The 12-year-old in Alaska who just shot the brown with the shotgun is the son of a good friend. His dad stopped a charging brown with a .500 S&W pistol a few years ago. They live off the grid and have lots of bear trouble with their livestock.
He lives every day with brown bears and has guided to dozens if not hundreds of them. He is a hard-core gun guy and he agrees with me on cartridges, guns and bullets. 
“That said, here are my picks. The .454 Casull is my usual choice as it provides a good balance of power with manageability. I own several Casulls, but my favorite handgun is a 5-inch, custom Freedom Arms Model 83 that Ken Kelly tricked out for me.
My handloads push a 300-grain hard-cast bullet to 1,614 fps. I usually carry it in a cross-draw holster that allows me to ride a horse or ATV. If I am packing meat, I carry it in a shoulder holster. Both holsters always pack into camp with me. Before any bear country hunt I practice with it a lot.
It is the gun I used in the American Hunter Challenge Video where I make five hits at seven yards in under three seconds. The group was less than four inches and the ammo was full-power Winchester factory loads so it was full recoil.
I have used the Casull to take a lot of game including several black bears so I understand the terminal ballistics of this cartridge pretty well. Sometimes I carry a .44 Magnum with 300-grain cast bullets, but never anything smaller for bear protection. I have a short barrel S&W 629 that Ken Kelly modified. Handloads push a 300-grain to just over 1,000 fps, so it just cracks the code.
It’s very light and handy to carry. I also have a small Freedom Arms in .500 Wyoming Express. It can push a 400-grain bullet to more than 1,500 fps, but I can’t control it. I load them to just over 1,200 fps. It’s often with me in bear country and has made several trips to Alaska. My Ruger Blackhawk in .45 Colt with handloads, 300-grains, 1,200 fps (1,192 to be exact) goes with me on a lot of black bear hunts with hounds. It’s light and easy to carry.”

Dating back to 1873, the .45 Colt will provide very impressive terminal ballistics when loaded in a strong, modern handgun.

Lasting Impressions

Put three or four gun writers in the same room, and you’ll usually get four different answers, but I think you’re seeing a common thread here. With the exception of Mr. Shoemaker – who has more experience than I will ever even hope to have – bigger seems to be better. Let’s hope that we can all avoid the threat of mauling, but if you’re unfortunate enough to have it happen to you, be prepared.
For more information about Federal ammunition, click here.
For more information about Hornady ammunition, click here.
For more information about Smith & Wesson, click here.
To purchase a sidearm for bear country on GunsAmerica, click here.