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The M50 Reising Submachine Gun

Image result for The M50 Reising Submachine Gun
Image result for The M50 Reising Submachine Gun
Now as any US Marine* will tell you. It seems to them that they are always the last to get any kind of new gear. Especially because the of these facts. As that most of the time. The money comes out of the Navy’s budget. That & the Marine Corp has a well earned reputation for frugality.
Image result for us marine corp memes
Image result for us marine corp versus us armymemes
Now in the spirit of semi open disclosure. I am one of the few Army Guys that like the Marines for the most part. That is to say. When they are not trying steal everything from us. That is not nailed down with an armed guard on it.
But that is for small minds to ponder upon. Anyways, when WWII came our way. The Marines were having a very hard time getting their hands on Machine Guns. Since it was a seller market at the time.
Image result for marines wwII cartoon
So when the Sales guy from H&R came around. The Marines snapped them up. In spite of the fact that the Army said a very firm “No Thanks pal! That & do not let the door hit you in the ass on the way out”.
Image result for m50 reising smg
As the Marines were soon to found out on why, pretty quickly. When they took them with them to Guadalcanal. Where they performed miserably in combat.
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What with a lot of jamming, problems with field stripping and cleaning. So they dumped them as quickly as they could. Then getting anything else that could shoot. That they could get their sticky fingers on.
Image result for marines wwII machine guns
Image result for marines wwII machine guns
Image result for marines wwII machine guns
 
Again nothing new here as any Marine will tell you after a few adult drinks.
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Yes Bugs Bunny was in the Corp!

A Very Senior Marine NCO with both versions of the M-50. The shorter version was for the Paramarines with a folding wire stock.
The Paramarines were Marine Airborne Units. That the Marine Corp raised because of the Army’s 82nd & 101st Airborne Divisions publicity.
(They had a mixed reputation and were disbanded by the Corp near the end of WWII)
Inline image 3Image result for m50 reising smg
Here is some more information about the M50

 

M50 Reising

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Model 50 Reising
Model-50.jpg

The Reising Model 50 submachine gun
Type Submachine gun
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1941–1953
Used by See Users
Wars World War II
Hukbalahap Rebellion
Malaysian Emergency[1]
Costa Rican Civil War[1]
Production history
Designer Eugene Reising
Designed 1940
Manufacturer Harrington & Richardson
Produced 1941–1945
Variants M55, M60, M65
Specifications
Weight 3.1 kg (6.83 lb) (M50)
2.8 kg (6.2 lb) (M55)
Length 959 mm (37.8 in)
787 mm (31.0 in) stock retracted (M55)
Barrel length 279 mm (11.0 in) (M50)

Cartridge .45 ACP (M50 and M55)[2]
.45 ACP (M60)
.22 LR (M65)
Action Delayed blowbackclosed bolt
Rate of fire 550 rounds/min (M50)
500 rounds/min (M55)
Muzzle velocity 280 m/s (919 ft/s)
Maximum firing range 300 yards
Feed system 12- or 20-round detachable box magazine
Sights Front blade, rear notch

The .45 Reising submachine gun was manufactured by Harrington & Richardson (H&R) Arms Company in Worcester, Massachusetts, and was designed and patented by Eugene Reising in 1940. The three versions of the weapon were the Model 50, the folding stock Model 55, and the semiautomatic Model 60 rifle.[3] Over 100,000 Reisings were ordered during World War II, and were initially used by the United States NavyMarine Corps, and the United States Coast Guard, though some were shipped to CanadianSoviet, and other allied forces to fight the Axis powers.[4]

History[edit]

U.S. Coast Guard sailor on shore patrol with working dog and a Reising Model 50 with 12-round magazine.

The Reising submachine gun was a very innovative weapon for its time featuring firepower, accuracy, excellent balance, light weight and ease of manufacture compared to the Thompson Model 1928 submachine gun, the leading American competitor of the time. But poor combat performance of the Reising contrasted with favorable combat and law enforcement use of the Thompson forever mired the weapon in controversy.[3]
Eugene Reising was an excellent marksman and ordnance engineer who believed engineering principles must match actual field needs. Reising practiced his creed by being an avid shooter, and by serving in the early 1900s as an assistant to firearm inventor John M. Browning. In doing so, Reising contributed to the final design of the US .45 Colt M1911 pistol, one of the most reliable pistols in history. Reising then designed a number of commercial rifles and pistols on his own, when in 1938, he turned his attention to designing a submachine gun as threats of war rapidly grew in Europe.[3]
Two years later he submitted his completed design to the Harrington & Richardson Arms Company (H&R) in Worcester, Massachusetts. It was accepted, and in March 1941, H&R started manufacturing the Model 50 full stocked submachine gun. Months later, production began on the Model 55 (identical to the Model 50 other than having a folding wire buttstock, no compensator, and a barrel half an inch shorter); and the Model 60 full stocked semiautomatic rifle that also resembled a Model 50, but had a 7.75 inch longer barrel without cooling fins or compensator.[3]
H&R promoted the submachine guns for police and military use, and the Model 60 for security guards. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 the US was suddenly in desperate need of thousands of modern automatic weapons. Since the Reising’s only competitor was the venerable .45 ACP Thompson Model 1928A1 submachine gun, a weapon that epitomized reliability and exquisite machining, the more easily manufactured Reising was quickly adopted by the US Navy and Marines as a limited-standard weapon.[3]
The US Army first tested the Reising in November 1941 at Fort Benning, Georgia, and found several parts failed due to poor construction. Once corrected a second test was made in 1942 at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In that test 3,500 rounds were fired resulting in two malfunctions: one from the ammunition, the other from a bolt malfunction. As a result, the Army didn’t adopt the Reising, but the Navy and Marines did, faced with insufficient supply of Thompsons.[3]
The Navy and Marines also noticed that the Reising had certain advantages over the Thompson. It was less costly, costing $62 compared to the $200 for the Thompson. It was much lighter (seven vs. eleven pounds). And, the Model 55 was much more compact (about twenty-two vs. thirty-three inches in length)–the most compact, accurate, and lightest submachine gun in the world at the time.[3]
The Reising cost and weighed less than the Thompson because its metal components were mostly stampings instead of machined parts. Its low weight was due to its delayed blowback design, whereas most WWII-era submachine guns utilized the simple blowback principle. Simple blowback relies largely on the mass (weight) of the bolt to secure the cartridge when firing, and therefore requires this component to be particularly heavy. (The 1928A1 Thompson had a more involved Blish lock system, but this was similarly dependent on high bolt mass.) It was more balanced because the barrel-and-receiver-group rested concentrically within the stock. It had smoother lines because the stock was of conventional shape, and the cocking handle (action bar) was placed inside the forearm. In addition, it was more accurate because the closed-bolt only shifted the hammer and firing pin on firing, whereas the Thompson slammed home a heavy bolt and actuator.[3]

Design[edit]

Though described as a submachine gun, the Reising was designed as a compact lightweight semi-automatic delayed blowback carbine, firing from a closed bolt for accuracy. The Reising was made in selective fire versions that could be switched between semi-automatic or full-automatic fire as needed and in semi-auto only versions to be used for marksmanship training and police and guard use. The Reising had a designed full-auto cyclic rate of 450–600 rounds per minute but it was reported that the true full-auto rate was closer to 750–850 rounds per minute. At those rates, the twenty round magazine could be emptied in less than two seconds. In 1941, the Reising was priced at approximately $50 per weapon as opposed to $225 for the standard military issue Thompson submachine gun.[5]

Variants[edit]

Reising Model 65 training rifle

There were four versions of the Reising, two selective fire models: the M50 and M55, and two semi-automatic only variants—the M60 a .45 ACP light rifle variant[6] and the M65 chambered for the .22 Long Rifle rimfire cartridge designed for training purposes.

Reising Model 55 with wire stock folded

There were two differences between the M50 and the M55, those being the elimination of the compensator and the addition of a folding wire buttstock making the M55 lighter and shorter. M55 was originally issued to Marine parachute infantry and armored vehicle crews.
The M60 was a long-barreled, semi-automatic carbine model designed primarily for military training and police use. However, few of these were ever sold. The Marines used M60s for training, guard duty, and other non-combat roles. Some M60s were believed to have been issued to Marine officers at Guadalcanal.[7] The remaining guns were passed on to State Guards and civilian law enforcement agencies.

USMC Deployment[edit]

USMC Reising Model 60 carbine

The Reising entered military service primarily because of uncertainty of supply of sufficient quantities of the Thompson submachine gun. In the testing stage, it won out over some other competing designs. It was very light and quite accurate in aimed fire, and “capable of intensive fire against personnel within a range of 300 yards.”[8] This was attributed to its better stock fit and intricate closed boltdelayed blowback design, though its firepower was somewhat limited due to the 20-round capacity of its largest magazine.[9][10] Most submachine guns fire from the open bolt position, meaning the full weight of the bolt slams forward when the trigger is pulled; with the Reising, only a lightweight firing pin striker moves when the trigger is pulled.[3]
The U.S. Marines adopted the Reising in 1941 with 4,200 authorized per division with approximately 500 authorized per each infantry regiment.[11][12] Most Reisings were originally issued to Marine officers and NCOs in lieu of a compact and light carbine, since the newly introduced M1 carbine was not yet being issued to the Marines. Although the Thompson submachine gun was available, this weapon frequently proved too heavy and bulky for jungle patrols, and initially it too was in short supply.[9]
During World War II, the Reising first saw action on August 7, 1942, exactly eight months to the day after Pearl Harbor, when 11,000 men from the 1st Marine Division stormed the beaches of Guadalcanal, in the Solomon Islands. This sweltering ninety-mile long mountainous island was covered with dense jungle and swamps, and was defended by Japanese troops. Since Guadalcanal had an airfield, the island had to be taken as Japanese aircraft from there could isolate Australia and New Zealand from America. To the Marines’ surprise, as they stepped off their landing craft and their naval fire crept forward, they were met not by the Japanese, but by silence and shattered coconut groves that fringed the beach. Advancing cautiously into the dark, musky jungle, they pushed forward and took the airfield the following day. But Japanese warships and reinforcements were en route. That night, powerful shell fire swept the Marines as they were suddenly cut off from sea; to be locked in mortal ground combat with the Japanese 35th Infantry Brigade, and 2nd and 28th Infantry Divisions.[3]
On the same date of Guadalcanal’s invasion, the Model 50 and 55 saw action by fast-striking, camouflage-dressed, 1st Marine Raiders on the small outlying islands of Tulagi and Tanambogo to the north. Two companies of Marine paratroopers, “The Devil Dogs,” dressed in olive drab jump smocks also used Model 55s to attack the island of Gavutu, between Tulagi and Tanambogo. Although Tulagi and Tanambogo were each secured in a day, the fighting was fierce. Japanese firing from caves and beach dugouts destroyed many of the raiders’ assault craft before touching shore. At day’s end, the raiders suffered 234 casualties from a 750-man force. The paratroopers fared worse. Of the 377 men who assaulted Gavutu, 212, roughly two-thirds were killed or seriously wounded, many because escorting warships couldn’t provide close fire support in the uncharted waters, and bombers sent to assist the paratroopers dropped their ordnance short killing their own men. Following six months of intense fighting, Guadalcanal fell to the Marines on February 7, 1943, at a cost of 6,000 wounded and killed Americans as well as 20,000 dead Japanese. Guadalcanal’s capture marked the beginning of the end of the Japanese Empire; other than minor advances in Burma and China, the Japanese were continuously pushed back to their homeland.[3]
Although Paramarines and armored crewmen had been issued the folding stock M55, the weapon’s poorly designed wire-framed stock tended to fold while firing and soon earned the M55 a poor reputation.[4] Moreover, the Reising was designed as a civilian police weapon and was not suited to the stresses of harsh battle conditions encountered in the Solomon Islands—namely, sand, saltwater and the difficulty in keeping the weapon clean enough to function properly. Tests at Aberdeen Proving Ground and Fort Benning Georgia had found difficulties in blindfold reassembly of the Reising, indicating the design was complicated and difficult to maintain. Many of the parts were hand fitted at the factory; this lack of parts interchangeability was not a problem for a civilian security or police firearm, but it was very problematic when Reisings were maintained in the field under combat conditions.[13]
While more accurate than the Thompson, particularly in semi-automatic mode, the Reising had a tendency to jam.[9] This was in part due to its overly complex delayed-blowback design.[13] This design used a system of levers within the receiver to release a fragile firing pin that could break, rust, or freeze in the humid jungle climate. This problem was exacerbated by the bolt delay recess in the receiver that accumulated dirt or fouling, preventing the bolt from seating properly; if not seated in its recess, the trigger disconnector prevented firing. In addition, the magazine was a staggered-column, single-cartridge feed design, and slight damage to the feed lips or debris in the magazine would render the magazine unusable. A partial solution to the magazine problem was the later introduction of a single-column magazine that reduced the capacity from 20 to 12 rounds.[3]
The Reising earned a dismal reputation for reliability in the combat conditions of Guadalcanal.[14] Fortunately, the M1 carbine eventually became available and was often chosen over both the Reising and the Thompson in the wet tropical conditions, as the M1928 Thompson’s built-in oiling pads in the receiver were a liability.[15]

Withdrawal from the Fleet Marine Force[edit]

In late 1943 following numerous complaints, the Reising was withdrawn from Fleet Marine Force (FMF) units and assigned to Stateside guard detachments and ship detachments.[16] After the Marines proved reluctant to accept more Reisings, and with the increased issue of the .30-caliber M1 carbine, the U.S. government passed some Reising submachine guns to the OSS and to various foreign governments (as Lend-Lease aid). Canada purchased some Model 50 SMGs and these were issued to 2nd Battalions in Canada where the 1st Battalions of regiments were serving overseas. They were issued along with .30-06 M1917 Enfields and .30-06 Lewis machine guns. One such unit to receive them was the 2nd Bn Seaforth Highlanders of Canada. The Veteran’s Guard of Canada were issued the weapon to guard German Prisoners of War.[17] Others were given to various anti-Axis resistance forces operating around the world.
Many Reisings (particularly the semiautomatic M60 rifle) were issued to State Guards for guarding war plants, bridges, and other strategic resources. And after the war thousands of Reising Model 50 submachine guns were acquired by state, county, and local U.S. law enforcement agencies. In this role the weapon proved much more successful, and by doing so, forever mired the weapon in controversy.[3]

Issues of reliability[edit]

H&R was justifiably proud of the Reising’s superior accuracy and balance, lighter weight, and ease of manufacturing when compared to the Thompson. However, the Reising’s close tolerance and delicate magazine proved unreliable in the sand and mud of the Solomons—unless kept scrupulously clean. The gun quickly became despised by front-line Marines, and Lieutenant Colonel Merritt A. Edson, Commander, 1st Marine Raider Battalion, ordered that Reisings be flung into Guadalcanal’s crocodile infested Lunga River, as his troops resorted to reliable bolt-action Springfield rifles.[3]
This failure made a mockery of H&R’s company slogan, “Six-and-one-half pounds of controlled dynamite. The H&R Reising will get a bullet there when you need it!”[3]
There are other reasons for its failure. Foremost was the Reising’s complex design of many small pins, plungers, springs and levers. Disassembly and assembly was difficult even under normal conditions. Simple maintenance was problematic as there was no bolt hold-open device. Chambering a cartridge was awkward as the action bar was hard to grasp in the forearm and could be obstructed by the sling. Worse, the safety/selector switch couldn’t be sensed by feel at night if it was in the safe, semi, or automatic position.[3]
“Filing-to-fit” of certain parts during production limited interchangeability. The exposed rear sight had no protective ears and was vulnerable to breakage. The adjustable front sight could be lost if the retaining screw wasn’t tightly secured. The weapon was susceptible to jamming if grime clogged the bolt’s locking recess in the receiver. The two small magazine guide retaining pins and corresponding receiver stud holes were tapered allowing disassembly and assembly only from one direction—right to left for disassembly, and left to right for assembly; adding unacceptable levels of complexity in a combat environment. The retaining pins had to be delicately pounded out whenever the bolt needed to be removed for cleaning. During the reassembly process, if the retaining pins were inserted too much or too little when reassembling, the receiver might not fit back into the tight confines of the stock.[3]

Model confusion[edit]

What constitutes a “commercial” and “military” Model 50 is amorphous. First, H&R never made a distinction; the distinction is made by collectors. This confusion stems from a period in production where early Model 50s were manufactured with commercial characteristics and H&R’s wartime practice of randomly installing old parts in stock throughout production.[3]
While there is not one factor that distinguishes the so-called commercial from the military model, the commercial model is usually blued. It commonly has a fixed front sight and a rear sight with no retaining screw. It often has 28 fins on the barrel, a one piece magazine release, no outward flanges on the safety/selector switch, and no sling swivels. Lastly, the commercial model commonly has a smooth take-down screw, a two-hole trigger guard, and serial numbers ranging from one to 20,000.[3]
Military Reisings are usually parkerized. They often have an adjustable front sight with an Allen screw and a rear sight with a retaining screw. They routinely have 14 fins on the barrel, a two piece magazine release, outward flanges on the safety/selector switch, sling swivels, stock ties (crossbolts through the forearm), and a knurled take-down screw. Finally, the military model commonly has a three-hole trigger guard, proofmarks like “PH” or “Pm2” above the chamber, and serial numbers ranging from 20,000 to 120,000.[3]
There are three types of H&R magazines. The first and second models are both smooth body, are blued, and are twenty-shot double column. The first model is distinguished by five cartridge peep holes on the left side, a feature eliminated on the second model to prevent mud and sand from entering. In contrast, the third model is parkerized, has two long indentations on the sides to reduce its capacity to a twelve-shot single column magazine because of feeding problems experienced with former models.[3]

Post World War II[edit]

Deputy sheriff with Reising M50

Production of the Model 50 and 55 submachine guns ceased in 1945 at the end of World War II. Nearly 120,000 submachine guns were made of which two thirds went to the Marines. H&R continued production of the Model 60 semiautomatic rifle in hopes of domestic sales, but with little demand, production of the Model 60 stopped in 1949 with over 3,000 manufactured. H&R sold their remaining inventory of submachine guns to police and correctional agencies across America who were interested in the Reising’s selective-fire capability, semi-auto accuracy, and low cost relative to a Thompson. Then faced with continued demand, H&R resumed production of the Model 50 in 1950 which sputtered to a halt in 1957 with nearly 5,500 additional submachine guns manufactured. But just when the Reising story seemed to end, a foreign order was received in the 1960s for nearly 2,000 more Model 60s, but that order was finally the end.[3]
Decades later, in 1986, H&R closed their doors and the Numrich Arms (aka Gun Parts Corporation) purchased their entire inventory. Acquiring a number of Model 50 receivers, Numrich assembled them with parts. These weapons all have an “S” preceding the serial number and were sold domestically in the early 1990s after reparkerization and fitting with newly manufactured walnut stocks. These stocks are distinguished from originals by their wider than normal sling swivels and buttstocks, by the fact they have no stock ties, and have H&R marked plastic buttplates (originals were unmarked metal).[3]

Machine gun murders[edit]

In New Zealand in December 1963, two men thought to have been operating an illegal beerhouse business were murdered execution-style with a Reising machine gun. Machine guns were a type of weapon thought not to exist in the country at the time.[18]

Users[edit]

**Warning Crude GI Humor Below!**
*  I was once told by a Vietnam War Marine friend of mine. Who use to strap a M-60 Tank on his back up in I Corp.
What a REAL Marine actually is.  It is a Green Amphibious Monster. That lives on three kinds of shit (Horse, Chicken and Bullshit) Who also has the spirit of the Waffen SS and the weapons of the Italians. I really do believe that he was steel on target about that one.
 

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Terminal Lance

I think that only my Brother In Law is the only Marine in our family. But none the less I really like this Comic Strip about today’s Marine Corp. It seems that they have a lot of the same issues that the US Army has also.
Also the Author is whip smart also. So hopefully some of your guys might like it also!

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I found this & thought it was worthy enough to share with you!

Here is some more good stuff for you!
Grumpy

The German MP40 Versus the American M3A1 Grease Gun

Teutonic Refinement Meet Yankee Brown

World War II changed most everything about planet earth. Society, culture, industry, and politics all underwent a seismic shift during this worldwide conflict that ultimately claimed 50 million souls. This most horrible of wars spilt rivers of blood.
Previously gunmaking retained some modicum of art. Military weapons combined the machinist’s touch with the woodworker’s skill to produce weapons that were elegant, graceful, and expensive. Receivers typically began life as huge chunks of forged steel before being cut or turned into something mechanically complex, sometimes on machines still driven by steam. In the desperate fight for national survival that defined World War II, however, man perfected the mass production of his implements of destruction.

                                    MP40                                      M3A1 Grease Gun

  • Weight.                             8.75 lbs                                                         7.95 lbs
  • Length—Stock Extended 32.8 in                                                   29.8 in
  • Length—Stock Retracted 24.8                                                      22.8 in
  • Barrel Length                9.9 in                                                           8 in
  • Cartridge                         9mm                                                             .45 ACP
  • Muzzle velocity             1,300 feet/second                                       920 feet/second
  • Rate of Fire                     500 rounds/minute                                    450 rounds/minute
  • Sights                                 Fixed                                                              Fixed
  • Total wartime Production 1.1 million                                          700,000

German Origins

The MP38 was cut from a heavy steel tube and can be readily identified by the longitudinal grooves cut in the receiver. The MP38 also has a dime-sized lightening hole stamped into both sides of the magazine well. Otherwise, the MP38 incorporated stamped steel fire controls, sights, and ancillary widgets. The gun also eschewed the use of wood anywhere in its production.
The MP38 was initially intended for use within and around armored vehicles. As a result, a synthetic polymer barrel rest was included underneath the barrel. The hook on the end of the rest was designed to rest outside the armor of a halftrack such that the muzzle didn’t inadvertently wander into the crew compartment under recoil.

The German MP40 submachine gun ushered in an entirely new era in military gun building. Sporting stamped steel components and a collapsible stock, the MP40 was the world’s first martial weapon truly optimized for mass production.

The MP38 rendered superb service in the hands of German Fallschirmjagers during their parachute assaults into Norway, Poland and Belgium. This tidy little submachine gun also armed German Panzer troops on their Blitzkrieg across Europe early in the war. Despite its incorporation of advanced production techniques, the Germans still saw room for improvement.

The MP40

The primary difference between the MP38 and the subsequent MP40 rested in the production of the receiver. The receiver of the MP40 was pressed out of thin gauge sheet steel on industrial presses. As a result, the gun could be produced en masse by semi-skilled labor. Production of the MP40 continued until the MP44 assault rifle supplanted it. Around 1.1 million of these guns were ultimately produced.

The folding steel stock on the MP40 was a bit flimsy yet remained effective under hard use. The pivoting buttplate must be folded flat when stowed.

The MP40 fed from a double column 32-round box magazine that tapered to a single feed for presentation. While offering reliable feed geometry, this design was prone to stoppage when dirty and required a magazine loading tool to load. The gun also incorporated a unique recoil assembly wherein nested steel cups telescoped into themselves around the recoil spring. This gave the MP40 an unusually smooth firing cycle. When combined with the weapon’s sedate rate of fire and front-heavy design this made the gun imminently controllable. The weapon was fully automatic only.
The original MP38 and early MP40s lacked a manual safety beyond a cutout to lock the bolt to the rear. However, the gun could be dropped onto its butt with a loaded magazine in place and suffer an accidental discharge. In this circumstance, the bolt might drop back far enough to pick up a round but not far enough to engage the sear. The fix for this problem involved cutting a locking slot in the front of the receiver and replacing the bolt with an improved version. The new charging handle could be snapped in place to secure the bolt in the forward position. Until the fix could be updated the Germans issued a special leather strap that would lock the bolt in place externally.

The Nazis serialized everything on their weapons to include the firing pin and these early Bakelite grip plates.

Despite the streamlined nature of the MP40 the Germans just couldn’t bring themselves to let go of their compulsive gunmaking proclivities. As a result, the MP40 is simply festooned with waffenamt acceptance stamps and every part big enough to accept one sports a serial number, to include the firing pin. This does indeed make for an elegant firearm that likely inspired confidence in its users, but did not lend itself to mass production by an industry threatened both day and night by Allied bombing. The MP40 has been encountered in action as recently as the Syrian Civil War.

The American Buzzgun

The American M3A1 Grease Gun was as utilitarian as we could make it. Sporting stamped steel for most of its components, the Grease Gun was ultimately a remarkably effective service weapon.

World War II was a come-as-you-are affair for the United States, and we found ourselves woefully unprepared when Pearl Harbor finally dragged us kicking and screaming into war. Our issue submachine gun of the day was the 1928A1 Thompson, but it was obsolete before the first bomb fell on that fateful Sunday morning. However, we Americans are a hearty lot and we responded by doing what we do best. We banded together, rolled up our sleeves, and built stuff.

The Grease Gun’s rear sight included a riveted insert to cut down on glare.

The M1928 morphed into the somewhat simplified M1A1 Thompson that was a bit easier and cheaper to build. Around 1.5 million Tommy guns rolled off the lines during the war to equip Allied forces of all nationalities. Even while we were ramping up to build Thompsons by the hundreds of thousands the War Department was rushing to secure a low-cost replacement.
The Thompson was sinfully heavy. With a loaded 50-round drum in place it weighed nearly what a Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) might. It was also mechanically complicated and suffered simply dreadful ergonomics. Despite its shortcomings, however, American GIs loved the gun. Many to most of them had cut their teeth on Saturday afternoon crime serials and going to war with a gangster chopper held an allure. The replacement for the Thompson was as unlike this big pre-war gun as might possibly be imagined.

The Grease Gun

The front sight on the Grease Gun was nothing more than a folded bit of steel.

The M3 Grease Gun was first adopted for service just over a year after the Pearl Harbor attack. In stark contrast to the Thompson, the M3 was simple, ugly, and utilitarian. The receiver was comprised of two halves of sheet steel welded together to form a shell. The bolt rode loosely within this assembly on a pair of guide rods. This allowed the gun to function in the face of modest damage. The sliding stock was formed from heavy gauge steel wire. In the original M3 version a ratcheting lever on the right side of the gun actuated the bolt. Everything that could be produced via industrial stampings was produced via industrial stampings. When compared to the elegant and meticulously built Thompson the M3 was positively homely.
The charging handle of the M3 was found to be unduly flimsy and the unfenced magazine release allowed the magazine to be dropped inadvertently. As a result, the improved M3A1 added a raised steel fence around the magazine release and dispensed with the ratcheting charging handle entirely. In its place was a simple divot in the bolt that allowed the operator to retract the bolt with a standard finger.
The Grease Gun weighed around 8 pounds and fed from the same sort of double column, single feed magazine that drove the MP40. In the M3A1 version the wire stock incorporated a useful and effective magazine loading tool. A large stamped steel dust cover folded in place to occlude battlefield grunge. A steel tab on this appendage locked the bolt and served as the gun’s sole safety. The gun’s heavy bolt and long travel conspired to yield a rate of fire of around 450 rounds per minute.

The trigger and receiver-cum-pistol grip were all formed from stamped steel. The trigger guard was a simple length of spring steel.

The Grease Gun cost $15 to make in 1943 (around $215 today) and was quite literally disposable. The Army supply system did not stock spare parts. When a Grease Gun went down it was discarded. There was a field modification of early M3 models that involved milling a slot in the receiver for a steel charging handle that reciprocated with the bolt for use when the ratchet system failed.

Both the MP40 and the M3A1 Grease Gun were quite controllable in trained hands.

The first recorded combat use of the Grease Gun was on the Airborne drop in support of D-Day. While GIs distrusted the Greaser early on for its crude appearance, most ultimately expressed grudging admiration for the design. The gun was profoundly robust and thoroughly reliable. The improved M3A1 version briefly saw action in the closing weeks of the war. The Grease Gun was used through the Korean War and Vietnam War all the way up to the Gulf War. I encountered high mileage World War II-vintage M3A1 Grease Guns in the hands of U.S. Army tankers while I was on active duty in the 1990s.

Face Off

Both these guns are bulky. The left-sided nature of the charging handle on the MP40 means the sling must be arranged on the right. This makes the gun a bit more awkward to tote. The Grease Gun uses a standard canvas M1 Carbine sling, while the MP40 employs an adjustable leather version. The MP40 sights are flip adjustable for 100 and 200 meters while the Grease Gun’s are simply fixed, but they are comparably effective.
The two guns sport very different personalities, but I found that I could keep my rounds on target with a comparable facility with both guns. The big .45ACP bullets are fully twice as heavy as the 9mm rounds the MP40 fires, so they bring markedly more horsepower. Both weapons enjoy a sedate rate of fire so singles and doubles are easy with a disciplined trigger finger.
The MP40 and the M3A1 Grease Gun were birthed under utterly different circumstances. One nation wanted to enslave the world. The other wanted to free it. That these guns share so many similar morphological characteristics is intriguing. These days rifle-caliber carbines have displaced the submachine gun in the arsenals of most developed countries. However, for a time, these two stamped steel submachine guns slugged it out to determine the mastery of the world.
For more information about period gear used as support in this article, click here.

Categories
Uncategorized

NSFW

Something that will be easy on a man’s eyes
Enjoy
Curvaceous! ♥~(ಠ_ರೃ) Très Belle Femme ღ♥♥ღ Sexy!!!

Categories
Well I thought it was funny!

The Mustache Story

The Mustache

Image result for army mustaches vietnam

Posted on 09/04/2017 by Wirecutter
This was sent in by one of our regular readers, Rurik.
Reprinted without his permission.

It happened in a galaxy far away and long ago. The galaxy was South Vietnam and the time was 1970. I was a Specialist 4 trying, not completely successfully, to adjust to the military ambience. Or in the technical language of the military, I was an asshole with an attitude. And an enormous mustache.
Now you might think that in an extraordinarily hot and humid tropic country, a mustache would be the very last thing one would want to grow on one’s face. And ordinarily you would be correct. However, the army is very much like being in high school; whatever they say you cannot do, is exactly what you desire most to do. And when an army seeks order by intricate regulation, it summons from the depths of hell a legion of barracks lawyers.
In the midst of war, out near the sharp and pointy end, such niceties as the minutiae of personal grooming are usually overlooked. But I had been reassigned to finish the last part of my tour of duty in the battalion motor pool. The motor sergeant was one Sergeant Jach, a man who seems to have excelled at being a Tech Sergeant, since he had been promoted to that rank repeatedly, and showed no sign that he ever intended to advance to First Sergeant. His primary talents were yelling, verbal abuse, and throwing around his rank, skills highly valued in his current position. Oh, and selective enforcement of petty regulations.
Which brings us back to … The mustache. It had already left behind the Teddy Roosevelt stage and had reached Stalinesque proportions, and showed every sign of aspiring to a truly Nietzchean dimension. And I was happy. And then one day, the mustache was noticed by Sergeant Jach.
“Specialist! That fucking mustache isn’t regulation. Get it trimmed or get rid of it by noon formation. That’s an order!” And he quoted me the regulation standard, a military mustache could not extend beyond the ends of one’s lips, nor touch the nose, nor touch the top of one’s upper lip – essentially a David Niven mustache.
In such a circumstance, there is only one thing a troop can do. And after lunch, before formation, I bade my mustache farewell, and trimmed it. But strangely this did not satisfy Sergeant Jach.
As we stood in formation and were called to order, his eye fell upon me….
“Wha…! What! What? What…the fuck!!!?” Perhaps for the first time in his career, even obscenities failed him. “Specialist. What’s that on your face?”
“My mustache, sergeant. Trimmed to regulation, just like you ordered.”
“But … Its only on the right side of your face!”
“Yes sergeant. Nothing in the regs says it has to be symmetrical.”
“But you look like a fucking O.D. clown.”
“Yes Sergeant. I’m even wearing an O.D. baggy suit.”
“Do you wanna look like an idiot?!”
“I don’t mind. Nobody around here I want to impress.”
And so it went back and forth for about ten minutes, the raging storm and the calm, immovable boulder. Eventually, we reached a negotiated settlement of truly Kissingerian elegance. Sergeant Jach agreed that I had a right under army regulations to wear a mustache on only half my face, and I agreed that, having made my point, I didn’t really want to spend the rest of my military career looking like a clown. And the remainder of the mustache was shaved off. And for the rest of my tour, Sergeant Jach never jached me around again.
****************************************
My Opinion. Not that it matters or anybody cares about it!

As you can see below. The Military has had a very long relationship with facial hair. As to myself. I say if it helps a man fight harder and better. Then let it come forth!
Image result for army mustaches
Image result for army mustachesImage result for army mustachesRelated image
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Categories
All About Guns

Mannlicher M1901

Image result for Mannlicher M1901
Image result for Mannlicher M1901
This a very strange and frankly ugly at least for me pistol. I have only see it once. When I was much younger.
It seemed to work for the owner and he had a fairly good pattern with it. But I was told that it is extremely hard to find ammo for it now a days. Frankly I was NOt impressed by it then or now.
Here is some more information below about this false start of a Semi Auto Pistol.
I hope that you like this.

Thanks

Grumpy

Mannlicher M1901

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mannlicher M1901
1901AustrianMannlicher1a.jpg
Type Semi-Automatic Pistol
Place of origin Austria-Hungary
Service history
Used by See Users
Wars World War I
Production history
Designer Ferdinand Mannlicher
Manufacturer Steyr-Mannlicher
Produced 1901–1903
No. built 4,000
Variants Mannlicher M1905
Specifications
Cartridge 7.63mm Mannlicher
Action Delayed blowback
Muzzle velocity 1070 ft/s (326 m/s)
Feed system 8 round stripper clip into magazine
Sights Iron sights

The M1901 Mannlicher Self-Loading, Semi-Automatic Pistol was an early semi-automatic pistol design.[1]

General features[edit]

This pistol is one of the most simple of blow-back semi-automatic pistols ever designed. The lockwork is essentially that of an elementary single action revolver. While technically listed as a ‘hesitation’ lock because of a delaying cam which has some theoretical tendency to slow down the opening of the breech, in actual practice it functions as an unlocked pistol.[1]
According to the Steyr factory records this arm, patented in 1898, was originally introduced as the “Model 1900” and used a special 8 mm cartridge.
When introduced commercially in 1901 it was chambered for a special straight-case cartridge listed in Austria as “7.63 mm Mannlicher”, designated in Germany as “7.65 mm Mannlicher” (Note: There is also another 7.65 mm Mannlincher cartridge, M.1903, similar to 7.65 mm Borchard), and described in the U.S. as “7.65 x 21 mm”. The Mannlicher “straight sided” cartridge actually has a straight taper to help in extraction.
The cartridge for this pistol was manufactured in Europe until the beginning of WWII. The cartridge has a bullet weighing approx. 85 grains (5.5 g) which may be steel or cupro-nickel jacketed. The powder charge varies with the type of powder used, the European standard being about 3.5 grains (227 mg) of DWM standard powder, producing a muzzle velocity in the neighborhood of 1070 ft/s (326 m/s).
While this is a cartridge of considerable power to use in a blow-back action, the pistol design itself is so sturdy that the arm has given satisfaction through the years.
The firing chamber in this design is part of the receiver proper. The magazine is housed in the grip and is loaded with a clip through the top of the open action. Because of the extremely simple lock work employed, the pistol has a minimum bulk for an arm of its type.[1]
1901MannlicherBreech.jpg

Breechblock design[edit]

The moving breechblock of this pistol was designed as a slide with two rails extending forward beneath the stationary receiver/barrel where they are connected by a cross beam which is also part of the single breechblock forging. The barrelis screwed into the chamber section of the receiver and has a front sight top rib which is part of the barrel forging.
A spiral recoil spring is positioned horizontally, directly below the barrel between the parallel guides of the receiver and rails of the breechblock. An illustration of this spring is shown in the drawing from page 216, Mannlicher Rifles and Pistols, Smith, 1947. When the pistol is discharged, as the breechblock moves to the rear and the slide rails travel back in the receiver guides, the cross-beam at the forward end serves to compress the recoil spring against the frame.
1901AustrianMannlicher2.jpg
The lockwork is incorporated on the left side of the frame where it is covered by a removable side cover housing of unusual design, being wrapped around at the forward end and serving also as a cover of the recoil spring. An illustration of this cover is shown in the drawing from page 218,.[2] This cover is installed on the frame from the front and is retained buy a spring catch forward of the trigger-guard.
The trigger is connected on the left side of the frame to a trigger bar which, as the trigger is pulled, moves rearward pushing against the sear tail which is under the control of the V-spring that serves as both trigger and sear springs. The sear nose engages in a notch in the left fork of the hammer (the hammer is external) to provide a fine trigger pull which is very unusual in an automatic pistol.
Mounted on the frame under the right portion of the side cover housing is the mainspring, a heavy V-spring. Its greater arm (lower) engages a notch in the right fork of the hammer to drive it forward when released by the sear. Its lesser arm (upper) continuously presses a cam upward that engages a slot in the under surface of the breechblock slide when the action is closed.[1]
Page 218.jpg
To load the pistol grasp the breechblock on the serrated gripping surfaces on the sides and pull the machine straight to the rear. The magazine follower rises to hold the action open while the cross beam at the forward end of the slide compresses the recoil spring. Insert a loaded stripper clip into the clip guide in the face of the breech block and then strip the cartridges into the magazine, compressing the spring below the follower. An illustration of this process is shown in the drawing from page 214, Mannlicher Rifles and Pistols, Smith, 1947. The spring lip at the top of the magazine serves to hold the cartridges. The cam on the right side of the frame, being forced up by the lesser arm of the mainspring, pushes the cam into the slot in the under surface of the breechblock slide and holds the machine back as explained above.[1]
Because of this cam hold-open, the pistol does not close when the clip is removed. However, drawing back slightly on the breechblock will ride it over the cam, and releasing it will permit the recoil spring to close the action.
As the breechblock goes forward, the extractor mounted in the top of the block will snap over the extracting groove of the cartridge as it is chambered.[1]

Discharging

Movement of the trigger linked to the trigger bar releases the sear from the hammer notch. The compressed arm of the mainspring, pushes against the hammer notch, rotating the hammer on its axis to strike the firing pin, discharging the cartridge.
The breechblock starts back at the instant of discharge, carrying the empty cartridge case with assistance of the extractor. The empty cartridge case is brought sharply against the ejector which is a bar at the back of the magazine. The underside of the breechblock is slotted to travel over the ejector.
The recoiling slide riding over the hammer causes the hammer to rotate on its axis, locking the sear in the notch of the left hammer fork.
The magazine spring forces the next cartridge up into line. At the apex of the recoil stroke the recoil spring acts to reverse the direction of the breechblock, chambering a fresh cartridge. Until trigger pressure is released another discharge is not possible.
1038778871 man3 001.jpg

Magazine unload lever

A unique feature of this pistol model is the unloading device. While the breechblock is held open, pulling down on the serrated lever on the right side at the top of the grip panel will withdraw the lip which is holding the cartridges in the magazine, enabling the magazine spring to move the platform up and force all the cartridges out of the magazine.
1745 discharge lever.jpg

Users[edit]

  •  Argentina: As “Modelo 1905”.
  •  Austria-Hungary: Was purchased privately by many officers of the Austro-Hungarian army, though rejected officially after trials in 1904-5.
Categories
All About Guns

Some of the Guns that I would like to own & shoot one day!

Image result for super lottoImage result for a million dollars
If and when I win the Lottery or something. This is what I am going right out & buy. That if it is still legal to so. So here is my list of what I would buy 1st. If you have a better idea post a response below.
Grumpy
Ohio ordnance BAR Semi Automatic Rifle

Inline image 1http://www.ohioordnanceworks.com/rifles/semi-auto/oow-line/1918a3/1918a3-slr-walnut-stock
A Ruger #1  405 Win Tuned up heavy duty recoil pad & recoil system in stock with scope on it
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50 BMG Barrett with a High End scope on it.                             (I would be the first on the block with this one)
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The Next couple of rifles would be the following.
Winchester 1885 High Wall (223, 220 swift, 243 win, 38-55 & a 257 Roberts)
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Then for the next day………
Categories
Uncategorized

The Presidents 100

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Now a lot of folks out there in the shooting community. Have never probably even heard of this program. I myself have never even seen one of these folks.  They are that elite!
Related image Who ever can legally wear all of these patches. Will qualify as a REAL BADASS in my book. That and the eye hand coordination of these folks must be off the scale!
But enough said of that. As it usually happens. This very good idea found a serious patron in the form of Theodore Roosevelt. Who really got things rolling.
Related image
Hopefully one day I can go and at least see at Camp Perry Ohio. (By the way, it is a really nice place and the CMP program is a real hidden gem)
 
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Thanks for your time that you spent reading this!
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
By the way the Paypal Button is still working! Yes I am still deep down a complete & total mercenary!

Here is also some more information about these incredibly skilled Folks!

The President’s Hundred Tab/Brassard is a badge awarded by the Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP) to the 100 top-scoring military and civilian shooters in the President’s Pistol and President’s Rifle Matches. The tab is authorized for wear on military uniforms of the U.S. ArmyU.S. Air Force, and U.S. Coast Guard (enlisted only). The brassard version is authorized for wear on enlisted uniforms of the U.S. Navy. The tab is 4 14 inches (11 cm) long and 58 inch (1.6 cm) high, with the word “PRESIDENT’S HUNDRED” centered in 14 inch (0.64 cm) tall letters. The Army’s and Air Force’s miniature metal replica of the tab is a full-color (yellow with green letters) variant of the tab once authorized for wear on the old Army Green Service Uniform and is about 2 inches (5.1 cm) in width. The brassard is a 3 12 inches (8.9 cm) long by 1 inch (2.5 cm) high curved bronze metallic arm patch with an enameled representation of the Flag of the President of the United States flanked by the Seal of the President of the United States to the left and the seal of the CMP to the right. At the top of the brassard are the raised words “PRESIDENT’S” to the left and “HUNDRED” to the right.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]
The President’s Hundred Tab is currently one of four permanent individual tabs authorized for wear by the U.S. Army.[2]

History[edit]

The National Rifle Association‘s (NRA) President’s Match was instituted at the NRA matches of 1878, as the American Military Rifle Championship Match. It was patterned after an event for British Volunteers called The Queen’s Match, a competition started by Queen Victoria and initiated by the National Rifle Association of Great Britain in 1860, in order to increase the ability of Britain’s marksmen following the Crimean War.[1][5][10]
In 1884, the name was changed to the President’s Match for the Military Rifle Championship of the United States. It was fired at Creedmoor, New York until 1891. In 1895, it was reintroduced at Sea Girt, New Jersey.[1][5]
The tradition of making a letter from the President of the United States the first prize began in 1904 when President Theodore Roosevelt, at the conclusion of the President’s Match, personally wrote a letter of congratulations to the winner, Private Howard Gensch of the 1st Regiment of Infantry of the New Jersey National Guard.[1][5]
It cannot be ascertained as to when the President’s Match was discontinued; however, it is known that it was not fired during World Wars I and II. It appears to have disappeared during the 1930s and during the Depression when lack of funds severely curtailed the holding of matches of importance.[1][5]
The President’s Match was reinstated in 1957 at the National Matches as “The President’s Hundred.” The 100 top-scoring competitors in the President’s Match were singled out for special recognition in a retreat ceremony in which they passed in review before the winner and former winners of this historic match.[1][5]
On 27 May 1958, the NRA requested the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel’s approval of a tab for presentation to each member of the “President’s Hundred.” NRA’s plan was to award the cloth tab together with a metal brassard during the 1958 National Matches. The cloth tab was of high level interest and approved for wear on the uniform on 3 March 1958. The first awards were made at Camp Perry, Ohio, in early September 1958. Only the U.S. Navy has authorized the wear of the metal brassard on the uniforms of enlisted sailors. However, the NRA issued the metal brassard to all military and civilian personnel for wear on the shooting jacket.[1][5][10]
In 1977, the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice (NBPRP) assumed responsibility for the President’s Match from the NRA. Today the CMP manages and awards the President’s Hundred Tab/Brassard to the top 100 shooters in those matches.[5]
In September 2008, the Department of the Army authorized a miniature metal tab to be worn on the new Army Service Uniform. This is a scaled-down replica of the President’s Hundred full-color embroidered tab.[1][7]
In January 2014, the Department of the Air Force, via an update to Air Force Instruction 36-2903, authorized the wear of the President’s Hundred Tab on the Airman Battle Uniform (olive drab version) and the Air Force service uniform(miniature full color replica) through the authorization for Airmen to wear any military badge they have earned given it is worn within uniform regulations.[6][7][11] [12]

See also[edit]

Attachments area
Categories
All About Guns

The Sig Saur in 40 S&W

 
Image result for The Sig P-226 in 40 S&W
As you have no doubt guessed by now. I up and bought myself a new toy. So I thought that I would share my experiences with it so far.
 
Now for a while now I wanted another Sig in 9mm. Since my P-220 in 45 ACP was getting very lonely.
Image result for The Sig P-220 in 45 acp
So I went shopping and found out this. That here in the People’s Republic of California. It is easier to find a Trump Supporter in San Francisco. Than it is to find a P-226 in 9mm at a reasonable price.  Surprised huh?
 
Image result for california gun control humor
Image result for california gun control humor
Therefore I had to “settle” for one in 40 S&W. (Life can be so hard at times!)
Anyways here is what I found out at the local noise pollution arena. (The Pistol Range)
Image result for indoor pistol range
Like the other Sig that I have. It is very well designed & built. It is also almost boring as to how accurate it is. Once you figure out where the piece throws its bullet.
Image result for tight pistol target pattern
This pretty close to what my pattern looked like at 20 feet. Honest!
 
Now about the 40 S&W Round itself.
I found that the round itself basically is a lot like the 45 ACP round. While the recoil was pretty much the same. As was the report too.
Image result for 40 S&W round
Since it was a Sig. I really can not say anything about accuracy. As up to now. I have not either seen or shot one that was not boringly accurate. Also I have never had one jam on me either.
Image result for 40 S&W round
But the big problem for me with this round are two fold. As the ammo is not cheap out here! That and sometimes it is very hard to find also.
So I am now seriously debating on if I am going to keep it or not. Time will tell, I guess!
Image result for the thinker
Comparison of the 40 to other defensive rounds
Image result for 40 S&W
here is some more videos, technical & other Information below!
Thanks for reading this!
Grumpy

.40 S&W

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
.40 S&W
40SW.jpg

An expanded hollow point bullet (left) and an unfired hollow point .40 S&W cartridge
Type Pistol
Place of origin United States
Production history
Designer Bob Klunk
Designed January 17, 1990
Produced 1990–present
Specifications
Parent case 10mm Auto
Case type Rimless, Straight
Bullet diameter .400 in (10.2 mm)
Neck diameter .423 in (10.7 mm)
Base diameter .424 in (10.8 mm)
Rim diameter .424 in (10.8 mm)
Rim thickness .055 in (1.4 mm)
Case length .850 in (21.6 mm)
Overall length 1.135 in (28.8 mm)
Case capacity 19.3 gr H2O (1.25 cm3)
Rifling twist 1 in 16 in. (406 mm)
Primer type Small pistol
Maximum pressure 35,000 psi (240 MPa)
Ballistic performance
Bullet mass/type Velocity Energy
10.69 g (165 gr) Federal FMJ 1,130 ft/s (340 m/s) 468 ft·lbf (635 J)
7.45 g (115 gr) Cor-Bon Glaser 1,400 ft/s (430 m/s) 500 ft·lbf (680 J)
10.04 g (155 gr) Federal HST 1,160 ft/s (350 m/s) 463 ft·lbf (628 J)
10.04 g (155 gr) Grizzly JHP 1,250 ft/s (380 m/s) 538 ft·lbf (729 J)
12.96 g (200 gr) Doubletap FMJ FP 1,050 ft/s (320 m/s) 490 ft·lbf (660 J)
Test barrel length: 4 inches (100 mm)
Source(s): [1][2]

The .40 S&W (10×22mm Smith & Wesson in unofficial metric notation) is a rimless pistol cartridge developed jointly by major American firearms manufacturers Smith & Wesson and Winchester.[3] The .40 S&W was developed from the ground up as a law enforcement cartridge designed to duplicate performance of the Federal Bureau of Investigation‘s (FBI) reduced-velocity 10mm Autocartridge which could be retrofitted into medium-frame (9mm size) semi-automatic handguns. It uses 0.40-inch (10 mm) diameter bullets ranging in weight from 105 to 200 grains (6.8 to 13.0 g).[4]

History[edit]

In the aftermath of the 1986 FBI Miami shootout, in which two FBI special agents were killed and five wounded, the FBI started the process of testing 9×19mm Parabellum and .45 ACP ammunition in preparation to replace its standard-issue revolver with a semi-automatic pistol. The semi-automatic pistol offered two advantages over the revolver: 1) increased ammunition capacity and 2) increased ease of reloading during a firefight. The FBI was satisfied with the performance of its .38 Special +P 158 gr (10.2 g) L.S.W.C.H.P. (lead semi-wadcutter hollowpoint) cartridge (“FBI Load”) based on decades of dependable performance. Ammunition for the new semi-automatic pistol had to deliver terminal performance equal or superior to the .38 Special FBI Load. The FBI developed a series of practically oriented tests involving eight test events that they believed reasonably represented the kinds of situations that FBI agents commonly encounter in shooting incidents.[citation needed]
During tests of the 9×19mm and .45 ACP ammunition, the FBI Firearms Training Unit’s Special Agent-in-Charge John Hall decided to include tests of the 10mm cartridge, supplying his personally owned Colt Delta Elite 10mm semi-automatic, and personally handloaded ammunition. The FBI’s tests revealed that a 170–180 gr (11.0–11.7 g) JHP 10mm bullet, propelled between 900–1,000 ft/s (270–300 m/s), achieved desired terminal performance without the heavy recoil associated with conventional 10mm ammunition (1,300–1,400 ft/s (400–430 m/s)). The FBI contacted Smith & Wesson and requested it to design a handgun to FBI specifications, based on the existing large-frame S&W Model 4506 .45 ACP handgun, that would reliably function with the FBI’s reduced-velocity 10mm ammunition. During this collaboration with the FBI, S&W realized that downsizing the 10mm full power to meet the FBI medium velocity specification meant less powder and more airspace in the case. They found that by removing the airspace they could shorten the 10mm case enough to fit within their medium-frame 9mm handguns and load it with a 180 gr (11.7 g) JHP bullet to produce ballistic performance identical to the FBI’s reduced-velocity 10mm cartridge. S&W then teamed with Winchester to produce a new cartridge, the .40 S&W. It uses a small pistol primerwhereas the 10mm cartridge uses a large pistol primer.
The .40 S&W cartridge debuted January 17, 1990, along with the new Smith & Wesson Model 4006 pistol, although it was several months before the pistols were available for purchase. Austrian manufacturer Glock Ges.m.b.H. beat Smith & Wesson to the dealer shelves in 1990, with pistols chambered in .40 S&W (the Glock 22 and Glock 23) which were announced a week before the 4006.[5] Glock’s rapid introduction was aided by its engineering of a pistol chambered in 10mm Auto, the Glock 20, only a short time earlier. Since the .40 S&W uses the same bore diameter and case head as the 10mm Auto, it was merely a matter of adapting the 10mm design to the shorter 9×19mm Parabellum frames. The new guns and ammunition were an immediate success.[6][7]
The .40 S&W case length and overall cartridge length are shortened, but other dimensions except case web and wall thickness remain identical to the 10mm Auto. Both cartridges headspace on the mouth of the case. Thus in a semi-auto they are not interchangeable. Fired from a 10mm semi-auto, the .40 Smith & Wesson cartridge will headspace on the extractor and the bullet will jump a 0.142 inches (3.6 mm) freebore just like a .38 Special fired from a .357 Magnum revolver. If the cartridge is not held by the extractor, the chances for a ruptured primer are great.[8] Smith & Wesson does make a double-action revolver that can fire either at will using moon clips. A single-action revolver in the .38–40 chambering can also be modified to fire the .40 or the 10mm if it has an extra cylinder. Some .40 caliber handguns can be converted to 9mm with a special purpose made barrel, magazine change, and other parts.[9][10]

Cartridge dimensions[edit]

The .40 S&W has 1.25 ml (19.3 grains H2O) cartridge case capacity.
40 S&W maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions[2] All sizes in millimeters (mm).
The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 406 millimetres (16.0 in), 6 grooves, ∅ lands = 9.91 ;mm, ∅ grooves = 10.17 mm, land width = 3.05 mm and the primer type is small pistol.[4] According to the official C.I.P. guidelines, the .40 S&W case can handle up to 225 megapascals (32,600 psi) piezo pressure. In C.I.P.-regulated countries every pistol/cartridge combo has to be proofed at 130% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.
The SAAMI pressure limit for the .40 S&W is set at 241.32 megapascals (35,001 psi) piezo pressure.[11]

Performance[edit]

.40 S&W Jacketed Flat Point cartridge from the side.

The .40 S&W cartridge has been popular with law enforcement agencies in the United States, Canada, and Australia. While possessing nearly identical accuracy,[12] drift and drop as the 9mm Parabellum, it also has an energy advantage[13] over the 9mm Parabellum[14] and .45 ACP,[15] and with a more manageable recoil than the 10mm Auto cartridge.[6] Marshall & Sanow (and other hydrostatic shock proponents) contend that with good jacketed hollow pointbullets, the more energetic loads for the .40 S&W can also create hydrostatic shock in human-sized living targets.[16][17]
Based on ideal terminal ballistic performance in ordnance gelatin during lab testing in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the .40 S&W earned status as “the ideal cartridge for personal defense and law enforcement”.[7][18] Apart from the imperfect relationship between ordnance gelatin ballistics and actual stopping power, critics pointed to the reduced power of the round compared with the 10mm Auto it was based on. Ballistically the .40 S&W is almost identical to the .38-40 Winchester introduced in 1874, as they share the same bullet diameter and bullet weight, and have similar muzzle velocities.[19] The energy of the .40 S&W exceeds standard-pressure .45 ACP loadings, generating between 350 foot-pounds (470 J) and 500 foot-pounds (680 J) of energy, depending on bullet weight. Both the .40 S&W and the 9mm Parabellum operate at a 35,000 pounds per square inch (240 MPa) SAAMI maximum, compared to a 21,000 pounds per square inch (140 MPa) maximum for .45 ACP.[20]
.40 S&W pistols with standard (not extended) double-stack magazines can hold as many as 16 cartridges. While not displacing the 9mm Parabellum, the .40 S&W is commonly used in law enforcement applications in keeping with its origin with the FBI. Select U.S. special operations units have available the .40 S&W and .45 ACP for their pistols. The United States Coast Guard, having dual duties as maritime law enforcement and military deployments, has adopted the SIG Sauer P229R DAK in .40 S&W as their standard sidearm.
The .40 S&W was originally loaded at subsonic velocity (around 980 ft/s (300 m/s)) with a 180 grains (11.7 g) bullet.[18]Since its introduction, various loads have been created, with the majority being either 155, 165 or 180 gr (10.0, 10.7 or 11.7 g).[21] However, there are some bullets with weights as light as 135 gr (8.7 g) and as heavy as 200 gr (13.0 g).[22]Cor-Bon and Winchester both offer a 135 gr (8.7 g) JHP and Cor-Bon also offers a 140 gr (9.1 g) Barnes XPB hollow-point. Double Tap Ammo, based out of Cedar City, Utah loads a 135 gr (8.7 g) Nosler JHP, a 155 gr (10.0 g), 165 gr (10.7 g) and 180 gr (11.7 g) Speer Gold Dot hollow-point (marketed as “Bonded Defense”), a 180 gr (11.7 g) Hornady XTP JHP, and three different 200 gr (13.0 g) loads included a 200 gr (13 g) Full Metal Jacket (FMJ), a 200 gr (13 g) Hornady XTP JHP and Double Tap’s own 200 gr (13 g) WFNGC (Wide Flat Nose Gas Check) hard cast lead bullet; the latter specifically designed for hunting and woods carry applications.

Case failure reports[edit]

Beretta 96 Feed Ramp

The .40 S&W has been noted in a number of cartridge case failures, particularly in older Glock pistols due to the relatively large area of unsupported case head in those barrels, given its high working pressure.[23][24] The feed ramp on the Glock .40 S&W pistols is larger than on other Glocks, which leaves the rear bottom of the case unsupported, and it is in this unsupported area that the cases fail. Most, but not all, of the failures have occurred with reloaded or remanufactured ammunition.[25] Cartridges loaded at or above the SAAMI pressure, or slightly oversized cases which fire slightly out of battery are often considered to be the cause of these failures,[25] which are commonly referred to as “kaBooms” or “kB!” for short.[25] While these case failures do not often injure the person holding the pistol, the venting of high pressure gas tends to eject the magazine out of the magazine well in a spectacular fashion, and usually destroys the pistol. In some cases, the barrel will also fail, blowing the top of the chamber off.

 

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Categories
All About Guns

M3 and M3A1 Grease Gun SMGs

 

M3 and M3A1 Grease Gun SMGs

Inline image 1

  When the last big misunderstanding between the Allies & The Axis broke out. (WWII 1939-45 AD) Most Armies were not even aware of the up coming firepower race that was heading their way.
  Since all of the Major Powers except of the USA. Were basically armed with your standard Bolt Action Rifle and your basic machine guns.  All of whom were pretty much the same.
As you can see most WWI veterans would, could, did easily transition back into service. When it came time to issue them their rifles.
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This is what was basically both sides started out with.
The Thompson MG for the Allies
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The Germans & Italians with this
The MP 40
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& The Italian Sub MG Beretta 38a
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Both of which were fine guns that performed very well indeed.
   Now take a gander at this. This what almost every Army had by the end of the War. When it came to the subject of Submachine Guns.
  As you can see. They were a whole lot of them. That and they were fairly liberally issued out. Especially with the Russians. But more on that on a later entry.
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  Now let us get the the “Grease Gun”.  America was as usual was not up to snuff when it came to Arms at this time. But this would change after this war. After we became the Arsenal of Democracy then massive Gun Dealer to the world
  So we turned to Detroit to save our butts. Where the best & the brightest worked at the time. They then came up was a rather ingenious toy. That was cheap, easy to make and got the job done.
  Everything that the Thompson Submachine Gun wasn’t.
(I have shot both of these guns by the way. The Thompson is like a Cadillac. I.E. Classy and practically handbuilt. It was truly a real joy to shoot by the way.
  The M-3 is a like VW Bug. Hey it’s ugly but it’s cheap and will get you from point A to point B. Get the picture? But none the less. It also was a lot of fun to shoot !)
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  Unlike the classic Thompson. While its is an excellent gun and a lot of fun to shoot. It takes a lot longer and a lot more machining and skill to build one. Which really jacks up the price too.
  Now this piece is not as accurate as the Thompson. But it will get the job done. Especially when you have to clean out a room, trench or say a bunker.
  When my Dad was in very early days of the Korean War. He carried this the M-3a as his weapon of choice. The reason being that as it was the best option at the time. (He also could not find a Thompson to steal either)
    Now also if you take into consideration that this was a “Temporary” weapon. It still served a very long time. As I can testify. Because in 1988, I qualified on it at the National Training Center at Ft Irwin with my Guard Unit.
   In closing. All in all, I think that for once the US Taxpayer got his money’s worth out of this gun.
Here now is some more & better information below
 This is a good and fairly cheap book by the way. I got mine on Amazon.
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M3 submachine gun

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Submachine Gun, Cal. .45, M3
M3-SMG.jpg

World War II-era Guide Lamp M3 submachine gun with 30-round magazine and other accessories. The Buffalo Arms bolt in this original M3 is dated January 1944.
Type Submachine gun
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1943–1992 (US) Philippines (revived 2004)
Wars
Production history
Designer George Hyde
Designed 1942
Manufacturer General Motors, others
Unit cost Approx. USD $15 (1943; equivalent to $208 in 2016)[5]
Produced 1943–1945
No. built 622,163;
606,694 M3
15,469 M3A1
Variants
  • M3A1
  • PAM1
  • PAM2
Specifications
Weight
  • M3 (empty): 8.15 lb (3.70 kg)
  • M3A1 (empty): 7.95 lb (3.61 kg)
Length 29.8 in (760 mm) stock extended / 22.8 in (579.1 mm) stock collapsed
Barrel length 8 in (203.2 mm)

Cartridge
Action Blowbackopen bolt
Rate of fire 450 rounds/min cyclic
Muzzle velocity 920 ft/s (280 m/s)
Effective firing range Sights fixed to 100 yards (91 m)[6]
Feed system 30-round detachable box magazine
Sights Fixed rear peep sight and blade foresight, calibrated to 100 yards for caliber .45 M1911 ball ammunition[6]

The M3 was an American .45-caliber submachine gun adopted for U.S. Army service on 12 December 1942, as the United States Submachine Gun, Cal. .45, M3.[6] The M3 was chambered for the same .45 round fired by the Thompson submachine gun, but was cheaper to produce, and lighter, although, contrary to popular belief, it was far less accurate.[6] This myth stems from a US army training film portraying the M3 as more accurate than its counterparts.[7] The M3 was commonly referred to as the “Grease Gun” or simply “the Greaser,” owing to its visual similarity to the mechanic’s tool.[8]
Intended as a replacement for the .45-caliber Thompson series of submachine guns, the M3 began to replace the Thompson in first-line service in mid-1944. Due to delays caused by production issues and approved specification changes, the M3 saw limited combat use in World War II and the M3A1 none.[6] The M3A1 was used in the Korean War and later conflicts.

History[edit]

M3 in use in Brittany, France, August 1944

In 1941, the U.S. Army Ordnance Board observed the effectiveness of submachine guns employed in Western Europe, particularly the German 9×19mm MP 40 and British Sten guns, and initiated a study to develop its own Sten-type submachine gun in October 1942.[8]The Ordnance Department requested the army submit a list of requirements for the new weapon, and ordnance in turn received a separate list of requirements from both the infantry and cavalry branches for a shoulder-fired weapon with full- or semi-automatic fire capability in caliber .45 ACP or .30 Carbine.[6]
The two lists of requirements received by ordnance were then reviewed and amended by officials at Aberdeen Proving Ground. The amended requirement called for an all-metal weapon of sheet metal construction[9] in .45 ACP caliber, designed for fast and inexpensive production with a minimum of machining, and featuring a dual full-automatic and semi-automatic fire capability, a heavy bolt to keep the cyclic rate under 500rpm, and the ability to place 90 percent of all shots fired from a standing position in full-automatic mode on a 6×6 foot target at a range of 50 yards.[6] The benchmark for testing the M3’s performance would be the M1928A1 Thompson.[6]
George Hyde of General Motors‘s Inland Division was given the task of designing the new weapon, while Frederick Sampson, Inland Division’s chief engineer, was responsible for preparing and organizing tooling for production. The original T15 specifications of 8 October 1942 were altered to remove a semi-automatic fire function, as well as to permit installation of a kit to convert the weapon’s original .45 caliber to that of 9mm Parabellum.[6] The new designation for the 9mm/.45 full-automatic-only weapon was the T20.[6]
Five prototype models of the .45 T20 and five 9mm conversion kits were built by General Motors for testing. At the initial military trials, the T20 successfully completed its accuracy trials with a score of 97 out of 100.[6] In the endurance test, the test weapon fired more than 5,000 rounds of brass-case ammunition, with only two failures to feed.[6] Four army test boards composed of multiple army service branches independently tested and reviewed the T-20 prototype weapons including the Airborne Command, the Amphibious Warfare Board, the Infantry Board, and the Armored Forces Board.[6] All four branches reported malfunctions caused by the M3 magazine, mostly attributed to defective or jammed magazine followers.[6]
The T20 was formally approved by U.S. Army Ordnance for production at GM’s Guide Lamp Division in Anderson, Indiana in December 1942 as the U.S. Submachine Gun, Caliber .45, M3.[6] Guide Lamp produced 606,694 of the M3 variant submachine gun between 1943 and 1945.[6] Although reports of malfunctions caused by the single-feed magazine design appeared during the initial firing trials, no changes were made to the M3 magazine.[6]
Around one thousand M3 submachine guns in caliber 9mm Parabellum were built by Guide Lamp.[10] These original 9mm guns, identified by the markings “U.S. 9 mm S.M.G.” on the left side of the magazine well (without any model designation, such as M3), were delivered to the OSS in 1944. Additionally, Rock Island Arsenal and Buffalo Arms Corporation manufactured parts for a limited number of 9mm conversion kits for the M3.[11] Though 25,000 kits were originally requested for procurement, this was changed to a recommendation by the Ordnance Committee in December 1943 that only 500 9mm conversion kits be obtained.[11] Procurement was authorized in February 1944, but it is believed that only a limited number of kits were actually produced.[11] These conversion kits included a new 9mm barrel, replacement bolt and recoil springs, a magazine well adapter for use with British Sten gun 32-round magazines, and a replacement 9mm Sten magazine of British manufacture.[11] As the M3’s sights were not altered for the new cartridge, the 9mm M3 shot high at 100 yards, but the sighting error was deemed inconsequential. The OSS also requested approximately 1,000 .45-caliber M3 submachine guns with an integral sound suppressor (designed by Bell Laboratories). Specially drilled barrels and barrel nuts were manufactured by Guide Lamp, while the High Standard Firearms Company produced the internal components and assembled the weapon.[12] The Bell Laboratories suppressor was estimated to be only 80% as efficient as the British suppressed STEN Mk IIS.[13]
With its stamped, riveted, and welded construction, the M3 was originally designed as a minimum-cost small arm, to be used and discarded once it became inoperative.[14][15] As such, replacement parts, weapon-specific tools, and sub-assemblies were not made available to unit-, depot-, or ordnance-level commands at the time of the M3’s introduction to service.[16][17] In 1944, a shortage of M3 submachine guns created by the need for interim production changes forced U.S. Army Ordnance workshops to fabricate pawl springs and other parts to keep existing weapons operational.[14][18]
After its introduction to service, reports of unserviceability of the M3 commenced in February 1944 with stateside units in training, who reported early failure of the cocking handle/bolt retraction mechanism on some weapons.[6] Similar reports later came from U.S. forces in Britain who were issued the M3.[6] An investigation revealed several deficiencies in the construction of the M3’s bolt retraction mechanism, together with issues concerning barrel removal and retention as well as easily bent rear sights.[6] As a result, several product improvements were incorporated into all new M3 production, including a new design retracting pawl with improved heat treatment, a new spring stop fitted to the right-hand brace of the retracting lever, a modified ejector featuring a cocking lever trip, a larger ratchet pad with improved heat treatment to more securely retain the barrel assembly, and strengthening gussets fitted to the sides of the fixed ‘L’ rear sight.[6] After new complaints were raised about accidental magazine releases and failure of the wire buttstock to remain in place in the collapsed position, two additional changes were made to M3 production and approved by Ordnance on 31 August 1944.[6]This included a small sheet metal guard around the magazine release button, and the inclusion of a stop between the two rods forming the wire stock at the butt end.[6]
In December 1944, in response to field requests for further improvements to the basic M3 design, an improved, simplified variant of the M3 was introduced, the M3A1. 15,469 M3A1 submachine guns were produced before the end of World War II.[6]
It was originally hoped that the M3 could be produced in numbers sufficient to cancel future orders for the Thompson submachine gun, and to allow the army to gradually withdraw the more expensive Thompson from front-line service. However, due to unforeseen production delays and requests for modifications, the M3 never fully replaced the Thompson during World War II, and purchases of the Thompson continued until February 1944. A total of 622,163 M3/M3A1 submachine guns of all types were assembled by the end of World War II, by which time the Thompson, at over 1.5 million guns produced, outnumbered the M3 and M3A1 in service by a factor of nearly three to one.[6] The M3A1 did not see combat in World War II, but was used in Korea and Vietnam.[citation needed]
The M3 and M3A1 were largely withdrawn from U.S. frontline service beginning in 1959 and into the early 1960s, but continued to be used until the mid-1990s as on vehicle equipment aboard armored vehicles. During the mid 1970s tank drivers of the 1st Battalion 67th Armored attached to the 2nd Armored Division were issued the M3A1, because of its size and portability.[citation needed] During the Gulf War, drivers of the 19th Engineer Battalion attached to the 1st Armored Division were equipped with the M3A1 as part of their vehicle TOE.[citation needed] It was also the initial submachine gun equipping the Delta Force who prized it for its impressively quiet performance when equipped with a silencer.[19]

Design details[edit]

The M3 was an automatic, air-cooled blowback-operated weapon that fired from an open bolt. Constructed of plain .060-in. thick sheet steel, the M3 receiver was stamped in two halves that were then welded together.[6] The M3 was striker-fired, with a fixed firing pin contained inside the bolt. The bolt was drilled longitudinally to support two parallel guide rods, upon which were mounted twin return (recoil) springs. This configuration allowed for larger machining tolerances while providing operating clearance in the event of dust, sand, or mud ingress.[20] The M3 featured a spring-loaded extractorwhich was housed inside the bolt head, while the ejector was located in the trigger group.[21] Like the British Sten, time and expense was saved by cold-swaging the M3’s barrel.[6]

Operating mechanism[edit]

A diagram of the M3 illustrating function.

The M3 operating sequence is as follows: the bolt is cocked to the rear using the cocking handle located on the right side of the ejector housing. When the trigger is pulled, the bolt is driven forward by the recoil springs, stripping a round from the feed lips of the magazine and guiding the round into the chamber. The bolt then continues forward and the firing pin strikes the cartridge primer, igniting the round, resulting in a high-pressure impulse, forcing the bolt back against the resistance of the recoil springs and the inertial mass of the bolt. By the time the bolt and empty casing have moved far enough to the rear to open the chamber, the bullet has left the barrel and pressure in the barrel has dropped to a safe level. The M3’s comparatively low cyclic rate was a function of the relatively low pressure generated by the .45 ACP round, a heavy bolt, and recoil springs with a lighter-than-normal compression rate.[citation needed]

Features[edit]

M3 receiver markings

The gun used metal stamping and pressingspot welding and seam weldingextensively in its construction, reducing the number of man-hours required to assemble a unit. Only the barrel, bolt and firing mechanism were precision machined. The receiver consisted of two sheet metal halves welded together to form a cylinder. At the front end was a knurled metal cap which was used to retain the removable barrel. The cold-swaged, rifled barrel had 4 right-hand grooves. M3 and M3A1 submachine guns could be fitted with an optional, detachable flash hider, though none saw any service in World War II.[22] A later production flash hider designated Hider, Flash M9 was produced in time to see service during the Korean War. It proved popular in combat, as frequent night engagements emphasized the need to reduce flash signatures on small arms. In Korea, U.S. soldiers equipped with automatic weapons were taught to look above the flash of their weapon during night firing, a tactic that sometimes prevented the detection of crawling enemy infiltrators and sappers.[citation needed]
Projecting to the rear was a one-piece wire stock made from a formed steel rod that telescoped into tubes on both sides of the receiver. Both ends of the stock were tapped and drilled so that it could be used as a cleaning rod. It could also be used as a disassembly tool or as a wrench used to unscrew the barrel cap.[citation needed]
The M3’s cocking handle assembly was located on the right-hand side of the receiver on the ejector housing, just forward and above the trigger, and consisted of nine parts.[20] As the handle is pulled to the rear, a pawl rises to engage a notch in the bottom of the bolt, pushing the bolt to the rear until it locked back on the sear.
The fixed sights consisted of a rear aperture sight preset for firing at 100 yards (approximately 91 m) and a front blade foresight. All M3 submachine guns were test-fired for accuracy at a distance of 100 feet (30 m).[6] With the sights set at six-o’clock on a bullseye target, each gun was required to keep four out of five shots within or cut the edge of a three-inch (76 mm) bulls’ eye to meet accuracy requirements.[6]
The weapon’s only safety was the hinged ejection port dust cover. This cover had a projection on the underside that engaged a notch on the bolt, locking it in either its forward or rearmost positions. The M3 had no mechanical means of disabling the trigger, and the insertion of a loaded magazine would load the gun. With receiver walls made of relatively thin-gauge sheet metal, the M3/M3A1 were subject to disabling damage if dropped on an open dust cover – the covers bent easily, negating the safety feature. Dropping the gun on a sharp or hard surface could dent the receiver enough to bind the bolt.[citation needed]
The M3/M3A1’s 30-round magazine was the source of complaints throughout the service life of the weapon.[23][24] Unlike the Thompson, the M3 fed from a double-column, single-feed detachable box magazine which held 30 rounds and was patterned after the British Sten magazine; the single-feed design proved difficult to load by hand, and was more easily jammed by mud, dust, and dirt than double-column, double-feed designs like the Thompson.[25] Additionally, the feed lips of the single-feed design proved more susceptible to feed malfunctions when slightly bent or damaged. Plastic dust caps were later issued to cover the feed end of the magazine and keep out dust as well as protect the sensitive feed lips.[citation needed]

Variants[edit]

M3A1[edit]

In December 1944, a modernized version of the M3 known as the M3A1 was introduced into service, with all parts except the bolt, housing assembly, and receiver interchangeable with those of the M3. The M3A1 had several improvements:

  • Most significantly eliminating the troublesome crank-type cocking lever assembly, replaced by a recessed cocking slot machined into the top front portion of the bolt, letting it be cocked by putting a finger into the cocking slot and pulling back the bolt.
  • The retracting pawl notch was removed, and a clearance slot for the cover hinge rivets was added.
  • The ejection port and its cover were lengthened to allow the bolt to be drawn back far enough to be engaged by the sear.
  • The safety lock was moved further to the rear on the cover.
  • To make loading the single-feed magazine easier, a magazine loading tool was welded to the wire stock; it also served as a cleaning rod stop.
  • The barrel bushing received two flat cuts that helped in barrel removal by using the stock as a wrench.
  • The barrel ratchet was redesigned to provide a longer depressing level for easier disengagement from the barrel collar.
  • The spare lubricant clip (on the left side of the cocking lever assembly) was removed, replaced with an oil reservoir and an oiler in the pistol grip of the receiver assembly. The stylus on the oiler cap could also double as a drift to remove the extractor pin.

At 7.95 pounds empty, the M3A1 was slightly lighter than the M3, at 8.15 pounds empty, primarily due to the simplified cocking mechanism.[6] The M3A1 was formally approved for production on 21 December 1944.[6]
The M3A1 modifications resulted in a more reliable, lighter weight, easier to maintain, and easier to field strip submachine gun; the original M3 needed both the trigger guard removed and the cocking crank assembly detached from the receiver housing before unscrewing the barrel, but the M3A1 only required the user unscrew the barrel. To date, only one 9mm conversion kit for the M3A1 has been discovered.[11]
Because it had already been issued in large numbers, the existing M3 magazine design was retained, despite demonstrated deficiencies exposed during the weapon’s firing trials and its early combat service.[24] In an effort to improve reliability, a hard plastic Tenite cap designated T2 was adopted in November 1944 to fit over the feed lips of loaded magazines.[25] These caps protected the feed lips while keeping out dirt, sand, and debris.[26] Sometime during the 1960s the hard T2 plastic cap was replaced in service with one of pliant neoprene rubber, which could be removed with less noise.[27] Unfortunately, during service in the humid climate of Vietnam it was discovered that the rubber cap caused rust to form on the covered portion of the magazine, while causing loaded ammunition to corrode.[27]
Initially, M3 submachine guns returned for repair were not upgraded to the M3A1 standard, but merely inspected to ensure they had the improved M3 housing assembly and magazine release shield.[28] During the Korean War, existing M3 guns in service were converted to the improved M3A1 configuration using additional new production parts.[29] During the conversion, armorers frequently removed the M3 cocking handle, leaving the rest of the now-redundant cocking mechanism inside the subframe.[30] Overall, the M3A1 was seen by most soldiers and Ordnance technicians as an improvement over the M3. However, complaints of accidental discharge continued to occur even as late as the Korean War.[30] These incidents were sometimes caused by dropping the weapon on a hard surface with an impact sufficient to knock open the ejection port cover and propel the bolt backwards (but not enough to catch the sear). The return springs would then propel the bolt forward to pick up a cartridge from the magazine and carry it into the chamber, where the bolt’s fixed firing pin struck the primer upon contact.[30][31]
In 1945, the Guide Lamp factory manufactured 15,469 M3A1 submachine guns before production contracts were canceled with the end of the war. During the Korean WarIthaca Gun Co built another 33,000 complete guns as well as manufacturing thousands of parts for the repair and rebuilding of existing M3 and M3A1 weapons.[32]

Foreign variants and derivatives[edit]

P.A.M. 1 & 2 (Argentina)[edit]

In 1954, a variant of the U.S. M3A1 submachine gun was designed at the Argentine FMAP (Fábrica Militar de Armas Portátiles) factory in the city of Rosario and put into production the following year as the P.A.M. 1 (Pistola Ametrelladora Modelo 1).[33][34] Constructed of somewhat thinner-gauge steel than the U.S. M3A1, the P.A.M. 1 was in essence a 7/8 scale replica of the U.S. weapon in 9mm Parabellum caliber,[35] but was lighter[36] and had a higher rate of fire. This was due to an incomplete transfer of all details to Argentina.[37] In service, the P.A.M. 1’s thinner sheet steel receiver tended to overheat with extended firing, while the gun itself proved somewhat more difficult to control in automatic fire despite the smaller caliber. Additionally, triggering the weapon to fire individual shots proved difficult owing to the increased rate of fire. Problems with accidental discharges and accuracy with the P.A.M. 1 led to an improved selective-fire version with a grip safety on the magazine housing known as the P.A.M. 2, first introduced in 1963.[37]
Colloquially referred to as La Engrasadora (the Greaser), 47,688 P.A.M. 1 and P.A.M. 2 submachine guns were produced between 1955 and 1972. A number of P.A.M. 1 and P.A.M. 2 submachine guns were used by the Argentine Army during the Falkland Islands War with the United Kingdom in 1982, and captured examples were tested by British military forces.[38]

Type 36 & 37 (China)[edit]

The Type 36 is a direct clone of the M3A1, manufactured in 1947 at the Shenyang Arsenal in Mukden.[39] It resembles a M3A1, except that it has no flats to allow the use of a wrench for easy removal and it has no oil bottle trap in the pistol grip.[39] Its parts are not interchangeable with the M3A1.[39]
10,000 Type 36s were made before they were obtained by pro-Communist forces in 1949.[39]
The Type 37 is a direct clone of the 9mm-chambered M3, made at the 60th Jinling Arsenal near Nanking.[39] Production continued in Taiwan as the Type 39, a successor to the Type 37.[39]

Users[edit]

Philippine Naval Special Warfare Group members conduct interdiction training with the U.S. Coast Guard in Cebu City, 2009. Two of them are armed with M3s.